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Dictionary form, indicates the subject of a sentence
Gosia pisze książkę
Gosia is writing a book.
A (noun) is B (adjective)
Nominative (not 'to jest')
Nominative (not A [noun] is B [adjective])
Implies possession, corresponds to 's as in Tom's or 'of...'
Adam widzi kota AgnieszkI
Adam sees Agnieszka'S cat
Kot PiotrA pije mleko
Piotr'S cat drinks milk
a can OF beer
a sheet OF paper
dla, do, od
Genitive (after some prepositions)
Used for the direct object in a negative sentence (Only if the positive sentence would use the accusative!)
Kot pije mleko
The cat drinks milk (milk is accusative)
Kot nie pije mlekA
The cat doesn't drink milk (milk becomes genitive)
Agnieszka jest dziewczyną
Agnieszka is a girl. (Girl in instrumental)
Adam nie jest dziewczyną
Adam is not a girl. (Girl remains in the instrumental)
Agnieszka daje kotu mleko
Agnieszka gives milk to the cat (Milk in the accusative, cat in the dative)
Agnieszka nie daje kotu mlekA
Agnieszka doesn't give milk to the cat (Milk is now in the genitive, cat still in the dative).