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B2B
describing or involving arrangements or trade between different businesses, rather than between businesses and the general public
B2C
describing or involving the sale of goods or services to single customers for their own use, rather than to businesses
back up
to store a copy of data on a storage device to keep it safe
backbone
the main transmission path handling the major data traffic connecting different LANs together
backdoor
technique in which a system security mechanism is bypassed undetectably to access a computer or its data
backend
the server part of a client-server configuration that provides a service on a network at the request of a client
background
describing processing which does not involve computer-user interaction, using spare computer resources to perform low-priority tasks
backing storage
this means that data is held when the computer is switched off and can be loaded onto a computer system when required
backspace
the key that you press on a computer keyboard to remove the character to the left of the cursor or any selected text
backup
the process of storing a copy of data on a storage device to keep if safe; the term used for the copied data
bandwidth
the range of frequencies that can be transmitted over a communications channel
barcode reader
a scanning device that can read barcodes as input
barcode
a sequence of vertical parallel lines used to give items a unique identification number
bash
a free Unix shell for the GNU Project; a command processor that typically runs in a text window, allowing the user to type commands that cause actions
batch mode
performing a particular operation automatically on a group of files all at once rather than manually opening, editing and saving one file at a time
batch file
a program that runs without any terminal or user interaction, typically performing large scale updates, produce reports, or handle housekeeping functions
baud
a unit of transmission speed equal to the number of times a signal changes state per second
beamforming
focusing a Wi-Fi signal in a specific direction
bearer channel
the common name for the part of an ISDN line that carries the data
beerware
a relaxed license, with the user encouraged to pay for the software by donating to its author enough money to buy a beer
benchmark
a test used to measure the relative performance of hardware or software products, e.g. if you want to know which of two computers is faster
bespoke
in technology, software made to meet the customer's demands and requirements
beta version
a pre-release version of software or an application program that contains most of the major features, but is not yet complete
bi-directional frame
a type of image frame used in MPEG compression, situated between I and P frames storing the differences in the image compared with the I or P frame both before and after it
binary adder
the part of the arithmetic-logic unit which performs binary addition and subtractionsumatorbinarny
binary arithmetic
arithmetic done to the base 2 using only 0 and 1 as its basic digits
binary number
a number (0 or 1) used in binary arithmetic
binary
a number system that only uses two digits, i.e. 1 and 0
Binary Search Tree
a binary tree in which every node contains only smaller values in its left subtree and only larger values in its right subtree
biometric device
a security or medical device that measures biological elements in order to perform functions such as logging health/fitness data and authenticating users, e.g. a fingerprint reader or an eye scanner
biometrics
the science that uses computer technology to identify people based on physical features, such as fingerprints or voice scans
BIOS
a part of the operating system stored on a ROM chip that controls the input and output of data to peripherals
bistable
circuit whose output can have one of two stable states, i.e. on or off
bit
a small unit of storage capacity, one of the eight binary digits that make up a byte
bitcoin
a digital asset created by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009 to work as a medium of exchange using cryptography to secure the transactions and to control the creation of additional units
bitcoin mining
a decentralized process of adding a block in a blockchain and creating new bitcoins
bitmap compression
a way of reducing the size of a stored image where different digital bits or collections of bits are used to describe each element of an image
bitmap
a computer image formed from pixels which are each stored as a value of one or more bits (= units of information)
bit-mapped
describing the image displayed on a computer screen whereby each pixel corresponds to one or more bits in memory
block
a collection of data stored together and treated as a single unit
blogger
someone who writes a blog
Blue Screen of Death
an error screen displayed after a fatal Windows operating system error; also known as a stop error or stop screen
bluesnarfing
a hacking attack that uses a Bluetooth connection to access a mobile device
bluetooth
the name of a high-speed microwave wireless network system developed by a group of companies consisting of Ericsson, IBM, Intel, Nokia and Toshiba; it is used with portable equipment
bookmark
to store a link to a webpage to make it easier to find in the future
boolean algebra
an algebra closely related to logic in which the symbols do not represent arithmetic quantities
boot loader
a small program that places the operating system of a computer into memory
boot sector virus
a self-replicating program that stores itself in the part of a disk containing the programs used to start up a computer
boot
to copy a part of the operating system into memory to allow a computer to start up
boss key
the key you hit to quickly hide something when you see your boss or uninvited coworker approaching
bot
a software application that runs automated tasks; typically, it performs tasks that are both simple and structurally repetitive, at a much higher rate than would be possible for a human
bracketing
setting the boundaries of a message or part of a message by marking its beginning and its end with special control bits
breadcrumb
navigation aid used in user interfaces allowing users to keep track of the locations within programs or documents
brick-and-click
banks or other companies that offer physical locations and online services
brick-and-mortar
banks or other companies that don’t have a Web presence
bridge
a hardware and software combination used to connect the same type of networks or partition a large network into two smaller ones
broadband
able to carry signals transmitted over a wide range of frequencies
broadcast
transmit signals that can be picked up by a large number of receivers
broadcasting
distribution of audio and video content to a dispersed audience via any audio visual medium
browse
to move from webpage to webpage using a Web browser program
browser
a program used for displaying webpages
browser add-on
program integrated into your browser application, usually providing additional functionality
brute force attack
a type of cryptanalytic attack based on checking all possible combinations of a password
buffering
a process of temporarily storing data from a fast source so that it can be fed at a steady rate to slower system
bug
a fault in a system
built-in
being an essential and permanent part of something, instilled, infused, integrated
bulletin board
an electronic noticeboard system that enables users to display messages for other users to read
burn
to record data onto an optical storage disc
bus network
a network setup in which each computer and network device are connected to a single cable or backbone
bus
a set of conductors that carry signals between different parts of computer
byte
unit of storage capacity, made up of eight bits and stores one character, i.e. a letter, a number, a space or a punctuation mark