Level 2
Level 1

Unit 1 Innovations


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bacteria
a member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms which have cell walls but lack organelles and an organized nucleus
lab
a place to work for a scientist
fungus
any of various types of organisms that get their food from decaying material or other living things
accidentally
by chance or by mistake
discover
find unexpectedly or during a search
antibiotic
a medicine that can destroy harmful bacteria
X-ray
a type of radiation that can go through many solid substances, allowing hidden objects such as bones and organs in the body to be photographed
inkjet printer
an electronic printer that blows ink onto paper using very small jets
rubber
an elastic substance made either from the juice of particular tropical trees or artificially
co-ordinate geometry
the study of geometry using a coordinate system; contrasts with synthetic geometry
safety glass
a type of glass, used especially for car windows, that either stays in one piece in an accident, or breaks into small pieces that are not sharp
sulphur
a pale yellow chemical element that exists in various physical forms
contain
to have something inside or include something as a part
stove
a piece of equipment that burns fuel or uses electricity in order to heat a place
substance
material with particular physical characteristics
insect
a type of very small animal with six legs, a body divided into three parts and usually two pairs of wings
specify
to explain or describe something clearly and exactly
3D space
the area around everything that exists, continuing in all directions
distance
the amount of space between two places
cathode ray
a flow of electrons emitted from the cathode of a high-vacuum tube
generator
a machine or device that produces something
bone
any of the hard parts inside a human or animal that make up its frame
engineer
a person whose job is to design or build machines, engines, or electrical equipment
iron
a chemical element which is strong, used in making steel, and exists in very small amounts in blood
syringe
a tube with a nozzle using for injecting or withdrawing fluids
ink
coloured liquid used for writing, printing, and drawing
glass flask
a container for liquids used in a lab
experience
the process of getting knowledge or skill from doing, seeing, or feeling things
equal
the same in amount, number, or size
weight
the amount that a thing weighs
displace
to force something or someone out of its usual or original position
invention
something that has never been made before
inventor
someone who has invented something
solid gold
a unique type of gold
melt
to turn from something solid into something soft or liquid
buoyant
able or tending to keep afloat or rise to the top of a liquid or gas
calculate
to judge the number or amount of something by using the information that you already have
volume
the amount of space that is contained within an object
divide
to separate into parts or groups
hull
the body or frame of a ship, most of which goes under the water
screw
a piece of metal with a raised edge twisting round along
cylinder
a solid or hollow tube with long straight sides and two circular ends the same size
drill
a tool that makes holes
seabed
the solid surface of the earth that lies under the ocean
explore
to search and discover
survey
the measuring and recording of the details of an area of land
surface
the outer or top part or layer of something
oil sand
a type of unconventional petroleum deposit
oilfield
an area under the ground where oil is found
reservoir
a place for storing liquid, especially a natural or artificial laked
oil platform
a large structure that carries equipment that is used to get oil from under the sea
straw
a thin tube made of plastic or waterproof paper that is used to suck liquid into the mouth
research
a detailed study of a subject
test
an act of using something to find out if it is working correctly or how effective it is
adhesive
a sticky substance that is used for joining things together permanently
reusable
capable of being used again or repeatedly
pressure
the force you produce when you press something
launch
introduce something new into market
require
to need something or make something necessary
field
an area or division of subject, profession
frequency
the number of times something happens within a particular period
pacemaker
a small device that is put inside someone's chest in order to help the heart beat at the correct speed
refinery
a factory where substances in their natural state, such as oil or sugar, are made pure
diesel
a type of heavy oil used as fuel
well
deep hole drilled in the ground from which liquid can be extracted
advantage
superiority of position or condition
horizontal
parallel to the plane of the horizon; at right angles to the vertical
stretch
to grow bigger/wider/larger, usually used for spaces or people
valve
device which regulates the flow of gas/liquid/other materials by opening, closing the passages for the material
seal
a part which tightens and secures flow of gas or liquid in joints
pump
to move sth, usually liquid or gas, from one place to another
oil deposits
a subsurface pool of hydrocarbons contained in porous or fractured rock formations
isolate
to set apart from others, to select or separate substances areas
drill
to make a hole in some material using devices, usually in circled motion
consist of
to be made of, to contain
innovative
original, skilled to invent sth new
solution to a problem
the result of some action leading to a positive end to the situation, problem
conventional
traditional, known by others, commonly used - about technology
weave laterally
oscillatory motion of water on circular or elliptic orbits caused by laterally wind
output
result of a taken action, information produces due to taken action
equivalent
giving the same results as others (about the method), as useful as others, the same in value or achievement
achieve
to gain sth, to successfully complete a settled goal through effort
overlook
ignore for a specific reason or unintentionally
ensure
to assure to fulfill sth - condition, commission or obligation
steerable
ability of being guided, changing the motion of itself
accuracy
quality or state of exactness, lowering risk of mistake or error
enable
to make possible, to allow sth to happen
flagship
the best or most important thing owned or produced by a particular organization
dormant
not used until now, left aside
complex
made of many elements which inter-relate with each other
develop
grow or cause to grow and become more mature, advanced, or elaborate
buried
something hidden in the dug pit and covered up
relay
send some stimulus, signal, impulse to another device
fibre-optic cable
unit of flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass or plastic
factor
something that influences the process, result of an action, which should be taken into consideration about the process
extract
separate one material from the other
instantly
without delay, at the moment, right now
remote
controlled from afar without physical contact
threaten
to give sings or warn of sth, to cause to feel insecure
increased
on higher level in comparison to others
swellable
having the ability to increase its volume by absorbing another substance
prevent
not to let sth happen by stopping/not starting taken action
fluid
a substance that flows and is not solid
adjacent
placed one next to the other, very close
flow
to move smoothly as a liquid, in a stream or continuously
contaminated
infused with unwanted material chemicals and therefore unwanted for further processes
rig
system of ropes, cables and chains which adjust the position of the vessel's sails and spars to which they are attached
swivel
a coupling between two parts enabling one to revolve without turning the other
close down
cease to continue work or business, especially on a permanent basis
suspended
supported by attachment from above; hanging
hook up
to connect devices together, for example monitors
hook
a piece of metal or other hard material curved or bent back at an angle, for catching hold of or hanging things on
excited atom
an atom with extra energy
coiled
formed into a spiral shape
occur
exist or be found to be present in a place or under a particular set of conditions
intermittently
happening in a non-continuous way, coming and going, intervals
absorbent
having the physical ability to take in and store liquid inside
sufficient
enough to meet the needs of a situation or a proposed end
derive
to have something as a source of
kerogen
solid organic matter in sedimentary rocks which forms hydrocarbons (oil and gas) when heated
oil shale
organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen
throughout
in every part, during whole period of
crude oil
naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface
fade
gradually grow faint and disappear
required
necessary to complete sth, essential for sth or in a process
deplete
to use up the supply or resources, to diminish in number or quality, to empty out
undergo
experience or be subjected to (something, typically something unpleasant or arduous)
adapt
make (something) suitable for a new use or purpose; modify
initial
right after beginning, first after start, coming before others
accompany
to be followed by, to go with, to be in association with
carbonate-rich
matter with increased carbonate content
exploitation
using an object or device in accordance with its purpose
ordinary
with no special or distinctive features; normal
beam
a line of light shining from something
amplification
the process of increasing something
emission
the process of sending something, especially gas or radiation
radiation
the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles
coherent
of something that is clear and each part of it has been carefully considered
photon
a single unit of light
spectrum
a band of colours produced by separation of the components of light
wavelength
the distance between successive crests of a wave, especially points in a sound wave or electromagnetic wave
ruby
a valuable red stone that is used in lasers
light tube
a long, hollow cylinder of metal, plastic, glass, etc. for holding or transporting light
mirror
a surface, typically of glass coated with a metal amalgam, which reflects a clear image
partial
existing only in part, incomplete
drilling
the action of making a hole in something
environment
the surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives
flexible
capable of bending easily without breaking
atom
the smallest particle of a chemical element that can exist
coil
to twist something into circles
intermittently
stopping and starting again for short periods of time
reflect
throw back (heat, light, or sound) without absorbing it
absorb
take in or soak up (energy or a liquid or other substance) by chemical or physical action
rapidly
very quickly, at a great rate
speed of light
an extremely high speed (symbol c)
hand over
give something to someone else
refer to
talk or write about someone or something; mention or allude to someone or something
divide
separate or be separated into parts
briefly
for a short time
basic
forming an essential foundation or starting point; fundamental
inject
Introduce (a new or different element) into something
flash on and off
shine in a bright but brief, intermittent way
particle
a very small piece of something
high voltage
a large electrical potential
power source
a place or thing from which energy comes from
supply
make (something needed or wanted) available to someone or something
form
the visible shape or configuration of something
zoom up
to get something bigger in size
hit
to touch someone or something quickly and with force
amplify
to make a light stronger (increase light in strength)
keep on
continue to do something.
along
moving in a constant direction
go over
consider, examine, or check (something)
take over
transfer control of something
move on
to start doing a new activity
translucent
allowing light to pass through
properties
attributes, qualities, or characteristic features of something
restraint
a measure or condition that keeps someone or something under control
cordless
working without connection to a mains supply or central unit
portable
able to be easily carried or moved, especially because being of a lighter and smaller version than usual
self-contained
complete, or having all that is needed, in itself
rechargeable
able to have its electrical energy restored by connection to a power supply
sample
a small amount of something that shows you what it is like
surface
the outside part or uppermost layer of something
non-combustible
made of material that does not burn if exposed to fire
fibreglass
a reinforced plastic material composed of glass fibres embedded in a resin matrix
reflectance
the measure of the proportion of light or other radiation striking a surface which is reflected off it
resistance
the ability not to be affected by something
weld
join together (metal parts) by heating the surfaces to the point of melting with a blowpipe
melting point
the temperature at which a given solid will melt
tungsten
the chemical element, a hard steel-grey metal of the transition series. It has a very high melting point (3410°C) and is used to make electric light filaments
nozzle
a cylindrical or round spout at the end of a pipe, hose, or tube used to control a jet of gas or liquid
tough
strong enough to withstand adverse conditions or rough handling
impact
the action of one object coming forcibly into contact with another
manufacture
make something on a large scale using machinery
bulletproof
designed to resist the penetration of bullets
bundle
a collection of things or quantity of material tied or wrapped up together
amount
a quantity of something, especially the total of a thing or things in number, size, value, or extent
throttle
a device controlling the flow of fuel or power to an engine
infrared
having a wavelength just greater than that of the red end of the visible light spectrum but less than that of microwaves
parallel
side by side and having the same distance continuously between them
electric current
a flow of electricity
cathode
the negatively charged electrode by which electrons enter an electrical device
lead
a soft, heavy, ductile bluish-grey metal, the chemical element of atomic number 82
anode
the positively charged electrode by which the electrons leave an electrical device
release
allow or enable to escape from confinement; set free
soft
easy to mould, cut, compress, or fold, not hard or firm to the touch
imaging
the process of making a visual representation of something by scanning it with a detector or electromagnetic beam
multiple
having or involving several parts, elements, or members
zone
an area or stretch of land having a particular characteristic, purpose, or use, or subject to particular restrictions
blockage
an obstruction which makes movement or flow difficult or impossible
directional
relating to or indicating the direction in which someone or something is situated or moving