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A unit for measuring temperature.
When a liquid turns into a gas.
The energy stored in the movement of particles. Sometimes called thermal energy.
A unit for measuring energy.
How hot something is, usually measured in degrees Celsius.
Another term for internal energy.
‘To soak up’ or ‘to take in’.
The way energy is transferred through solids by heating.
The way energy is transferred by heating in fluids.
A flow of liquid or gas caused by part of it being heated or cooled more than the rest.
The amount of mass that one cubic centimetre of a substance has. Often measured in grams per cubic centimetre (g/cm3).
To give out.
A gas or a liquid.
A way of transferring energy by heating that does not need a medium (material). Infrared radiation can travel through transparent things and a vacuum (empty space).
Any substance through which something travels.
A way of transferring energy by heating. Also known as infrared radiation. Infrared radiation can travel through transparent things and a vacuum (empty space).
To bounce off a surface instead of passing through it or being absorbed.
A material that allows internal (thermal) energy to be transferred through it easily.
A device like a camera that makes images by detecting infrared radiation.
A material that does not allow internal (thermal) energy to be transferred through it easily.
A flat plate that uses energy transferred by the light to produce electricity.
A panel that uses energy from the Sun to heat water.
A measurement that is close to the true value.
Measurements that are close to one another.
An error that can be different for every reading.
An error that is the same for all readings, such as when forgetting to zero a balance before using it to measure a series of masses.
Something is valid if it is doing what it is supposed to do. A measurement is valid if it measures what it is supposed to measure. A valid conclusion is drawn only from the data that the conclusion is supposed to be drawn from.
A machine, usually one powered by electricity and used in the home.
A way of saying how much energy something wastes.
A unit for measuring power. There are 1000 watts (W) in 1 kilowatt (kW).
The amount of energy (in joules, J) transferred every second. It is measured in watts (W).
The number of joules of energy an appliance uses every second.
A diagram showing energy transfers, where the width of each arrow is proportional to the amount of energy it represents.
A unit for measuring power. 1 watt (W) is 1 joule (J) per second.
The amount of energy used by a 1 kilowatt (kW) appliance in one hour. It is equal to 3600 kilojoules (kJ).
The time it takes to get back (in energy savings) the money you spent on making an energy-saving change.
Changes that will happen to the weather as a result of global warming.
A fuel formed from the dead remains of organisms over millions of years (e.g. coal, oil or natural gas).