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Continuous variation
Data values that change gradually and can have any value are continuous. Examples include time and length. Continuous variation is any variation in organisms that has values that change gradually.
Discontinuous variation
Data values that can only have one of a set number of options are discontinuous. Examples include shoe sizes and days of the week. Discontinuation variation is any variation in organisms that only has values with a set number of options.
Habitat
The place where an organism lives, for example woodland.
Hybrid
An organism produced when members of two different species reproduce with each other.
Species
A group of organisms that can reproduce with each other to produce offspring that will also be able to reproduce.
Variation
The differences between things.
Bar chart
A chart displaying data as bars with gaps between them. Bar charts are used when you want to compare things.
Frequency diagram
Any chart or graph that shows a frequency (the number of things) on the y-axis.
Line of best fit
A line drawn on a scatter graph that goes through the middle of the points, so that about half the points are above the line and about half of them are below the line.
Normal distribution
When many things have a middle value with fewer things having greater or lesser values. This sort of data forms a bell shape on charts and graphs.
Relationship
A link between two things, so that when one thing changes so does the other. Best seen by using a scatter graph.
Scatter graph
A graph in which data for two variables is plotted as points. This allows you to see whether there is a relationship between the two variables.
The features that plants and animals have to help them live in a particular place.
Community
All the organisms that live in a habitat.
Ecosystem
All the physical environmental factors and all the organisms that are found in a habitat.
Inherited variation
Differences between organisms passed on to offspring by their parents in reproduction.
Physical environmental factors
The non-living conditions in the environment of an organism, such as temperature and light.
Bulb
Plant organ that is usually underground. Some plants only have leaves at certain times of the year and remain as bulbs at other times.
Daily changes
Changes in the physical environmental factors that happen during a day, for example it gets dark at night.
Deciduous
Plants that lose their leaves in winter are deciduous.
Evergreen
Plants that do not lose their leaves in winter are evergreen.
Hibernation
When animals hide away during the winter and become very inactive.
Migration
When animals move to different areas depending on the season.
Nocturnal
Organisms that are active at night are nocturnal.
Seasonal changes
Changes in the physical environmental factors of an environment that happen during the course of a year, for example it gets colder in winter.
Journal
Scientific magazine in which scientists publish reports about their investigations (scientific papers).
Mnemonic
A pattern of letters or words that helps you to remember something.
Carnivore
An animal that only eats other animals.
Consumer
An organism that has to eat other organisms to stay alive. Animals are consumers.
Herbivore
An animal that only eats plants.
Interdependence
Species that depend on one another are said to be interdependent.
Omnivore
An animal that eats both plants and other animals.
Population
The number of a certain organism found in a certain area.
Predator
An animal that catches and eats other animals.
Prey
An animal that is caught and eaten by another animal.
Producer
An organism that is able to make its own food. Plants are producers.
Resource
Something needed by an organism. For example, plants need light as a resource; animals need food as a resource.
Top predator
The last animal in a food chain.
Persistent
A chemical substance that does not get broken down in nature very quickly is persistent. It stays around for a long time.
Pest
An organism that damages things that humans want to use.
Pesticide
A chemical substance that kills pests.
Pyramid of numbers
Way of showing the numbers of different organisms in a food chain. It is drawn as a stack of bars of different lengths, with producers on the bottom bar.