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Monocots vs Dicots


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Monocot seeds
single cotyledon
Dicot seeds
two cotyledons
Monocot leaves
lanceolate (strap-shaped) leaves both leaf surfaces identical
Dicot leaves
leaf blade often broad leaf often with a petiole upper and lower surfaces often differ
Monocot venation
parallel veins
Dicot venation
reticulate veins (a branching network)
Monocot vascular bundles
scattered vascular bundles. When mature vascular cambium absent. Usually no secondary growth.
Dicot vascular bundles
ring of vascular bundles containing vascular cambium leading to secondary growth
Monocot meristems
meristems at nodes
Dicot meristems
apical meristems (growing points at tip of stems)
Monocot roots
adventitious roots arising from base of stem to give a fibrous root system; many xylem groups
Dicot roots
primary root a tap root with branches few xylem groups
Monocot flowers
parts in 3s ; petals and sepals often identical ; often wind pollinated
Dicot flowers
parts in 4s, or 5s or multiples; petals and sepals usually differ; often insect pollinated