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General Thermodynamics


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What is internal energy?
Sum of energy of each particle (both kinetic and attractive/ repulsive forces)
Kinetic energy is called thermal energy- sum of what?
All kinetic energies of particles
True or False- Thermal energy can be measured directly.
FALSE
True or False- Changes in thermal energy can be meassured.
True
When is thermal energy transferred?
When 2 objects come in contact and the collision of particles transfers energy
What is a instrument used to measure temperature?
Thermometer
A degree is a unit of what?
Heat
The size of degree is dependent on what?
Temperature scale
What are fiducial points?
Fixed points of heat that allow thermometers to be calibrated
Fahrenheit was discovered by Gabriel Fahrenheit in what year?
1714
Why was the mercury thermometer better?
Measuring higher temperatures
On the fahrenheit scale water freezes at ____ and boils at _____.
32, 212
The celcius scale is what kind of temperatur scale?
Decimal
The celcius scale was discovered by Anders Celcius in what year?
1742
On the celcius scale waters freezin point is ____ and its boiling point is ____.
0, 100
Kelvin was created by Lord Kelvin in what year?
1848
What is a temperature where no more thermal energy can be removed from water?
Absolute Zero
In Kelvins the freezing point of water is ____.
273.15 K
What is a temperature where a substances' gaseous, liquid, and solid states are simultaneously all stable?
Triple Point
What is the triple point of water (has to do with Kelvins)?
273.16 K
In formulas what is the symbol for Kelvin?
T
What is thermal expansion?
When thermal vibrations increase particles expand
What is electrical resistance?
Resistance to conduct electricity
When temperature increas, electron movement does what?
Increases and becomes more chaotic
What is viscosity?
Fluids resistance to flow
The hotter the fluid the ____ viscosity it has.
Less
Heat is the FLOW of what?
Thermal energy from one place to another
True or False- All objects have thermal energy.
True
Heat is the quantity of what?
Thermal energy that has been transferred
Good conductors have atoms bonded together closely with loose electrons that can move is what?
Heat transfer
Conduction is what?
Thermal transfer by touch
What is the thermal equilibrium?
Both objects have the same amount of thermal energy
What is the most common way thermal energy moves through solids?
Conduction
What is convection?
Thermal energy is carried from one location to another by fluid
Gravitational energy makes warmer fluids rise up over cooler fluids it what?
Natural convection
Radiation is what?
Movement of thermal energy through a vacuum
What are thermal insulaters?
Materials that resist the flow of thermal energy
Thermal energy ( in joules) that an object must gain or loose to cause a temperature change of 1 degree celcius
Heat Capacity
Heat capacity per gram of material
Specific heat capacity
C= Q/delta t (formula for heat capacity) what do the letters stand for?
C- heat capacity
Q- thermal energy transferred in joules
delta t- change in temp in celcius
What is the amount of thermal energy used per gram to melt or freeze the substance?
latent heat of fusion
latent heat of vaporization is what?
Thermal energy used to vaporize liquids