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The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning.
The study of sounds in a language or languages.
Words represented by phonemic symbols
A poster or large diagram of the phonemic symbols arranged in a particular order.
Symbols that represent phonemes
to notice or understand the difference between two things
A sound in which the air is not blocked in the mouth. The voice is used with movement or vibration in the throat.
A movement from one vowel sound to another within a single syllable
A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips, tongue, teeth etc.
is about which syllable of a word is pronounced louder and longer – e.g. umBRELLa /ʌmˈbrelə/
Sound produced with movement or vibration felt in the throat.
To produce an _____ ______, no voice is used, e.g. /p/ in pad, /t/ in tomorrow. No movement or vibration can be felt in the throat.
A part of a word that usually contains a single vowel sound, e.g. pen = one syllable.
The / W / sound is called the _____. It is a feature of many weak forms, e.g. / kWn / in I can play tennis.
the way some words in a sentence are stressed they are usually information-carrying words. It's used to show meaning or emphasise a particular point or feeling
The main stress on a word, e.g. DIFFicult, indiVIDual. It's marked on a word in the dictionary as follows: 'difficult.
The stress is on a syllable or word in a sentence that is less strong than the primary (main) stress
is used when we compare or contrast and involves stressing the word we are comparing or contrasting, e.g. It was my AUNT who bought the car (not my uncle)
Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds.
If a word is unstressed, the _____ _____ of vowel may be used.
The way that some words are stressed to produce a regular pattern.
The way different sounds can link into each other in connected speech.
Where one word ends and the next one begins, especially in connected speech.
The way the level of a speaker’s voice changes to show meaning or feeling
stress, special importance or attention given to something
A shorter form of a group of words, which usually occurs in auxiliary verbs
Two words which differ from each other by only one meaningful sound.
Contrastive stress is used to express an unusual or emphatic meaning in a sentence.
A sound produced by stopping the air flow then releasing it with friction e.g. / tâ / , / dΩ /.
The ridge at the top of the mouth between the teeth and the hard palate. Several sounds e.g. / t / , / d / are made in this area.
A plosive sound produced at the back of the mouth and represented by the phonemic sometimes replaces other sounds, especially / t /,symbol / ÷ /. In English it sometimes replaces other sounds especially /t/
A letter in a word which is written but which does not influence the pronunciation.
When a sound in connected speech becomes similar to a neighbouring sound.
A sound produced with both lips e.g. / m / , / b /.
A sound produced by blocking air then releasing it suddenly. This creates a popping sound e.g. / p / , / t / , / ̋ /.
A sound produced on the lips and teeth e.g. / f / , / v /.
A sound produced by creating friction in the air flow e.g. / f / , / â / , / Ω / , / h / , / Ü /
It's the roof of the mouth. Sounds can be produced on the hard ____ or the soft ____ (velum).
Involving the teeth. Sounds like (/ ä / , / Ü /) are made with the teeth.
The soft palate
The adjective from velum. Velar sounds are made by moving the tongue towards the velum.
They are made by moving the tongue towards the velum. Examples of these sounds in English are: /k/, /g/
A sound produced by air passing through the nose
It's the roof of the mouth in humans.
When a sound is left out because it is followed by a similar sound.
Two or more consonants occurring together at the beginning or end of a syllable
Many words are not pronounced fully. When they are to emphasise a point they become strong forms.