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M1 - U3 Phonology


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phoneme
The smallest sound unit which can make a difference to meaning.
phonology
The study of sounds in a language or languages.
phonemic script
Words represented by phonemic symbols
phonemic chart
A poster or large diagram of the phonemic symbols arranged in a particular order.
phonemic symbols
Symbols that represent phonemes
distinguish
to notice or understand the difference between two things
vowel
A sound in which the air is not blocked in the mouth. The voice is used with movement or vibration in the throat.
diphthong
A movement from one vowel sound to another within a single syllable
consonant
A sound in which the air is partly blocked by the lips, tongue, teeth etc.
word stress
is about which syllable of a word is pronounced louder and longer – e.g. umBRELLa /ʌmˈbrelə/
voiced sound
Sound produced with movement or vibration felt in the throat.
unvoiced sound
To produce an _____ ______, no voice is used, e.g. /p/ in pad, /t/ in tomorrow. No movement or vibration can be felt in the throat.
syllable
A part of a word that usually contains a single vowel sound, e.g. pen = one syllable.
schwa
The / W / sound is called the _____. It is a feature of many weak forms, e.g. / kWn / in I can play tennis.
sentence stress
the way some words in a sentence are stressed they are usually information-carrying words. It's used to show meaning or emphasise a particular point or feeling
primary stress
The main stress on a word, e.g. DIFFicult, indiVIDual. It's marked on a word in the dictionary as follows: 'difficult.
secondary stress
The stress is on a syllable or word in a sentence that is less strong than the primary (main) stress
contrastive stress
is used when we compare or contrast and involves stressing the word we are comparing or contrasting, e.g. It was my AUNT who bought the car (not my uncle)
connected speech
Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds.
weak form
If a word is unstressed, the _____ _____ of vowel may be used.
rhythm
The way that some words are stressed to produce a regular pattern.
linking
The way different sounds can link into each other in connected speech.
word boundary
Where one word ends and the next one begins, especially in connected speech.
intonation
The way the level of a speaker’s voice changes to show meaning or feeling
emphasis
stress, special importance or attention given to something
contraction
A shorter form of a group of words, which usually occurs in auxiliary verbs
minimal pair
Two words which differ from each other by only one meaningful sound.
stress
Contrastive stress is used to express an unusual or emphatic meaning in a sentence.
affricate
A sound produced by stopping the air flow then releasing it with friction e.g. / tâ / , / dΩ /.
alveolar
The ridge at the top of the mouth between the teeth and the hard palate. Several sounds e.g. / t / , / d / are made in this area.
glottal stop
A plosive sound produced at the back of the mouth and represented by the phonemic sometimes replaces other sounds, especially / t /,symbol / ÷ /. In English it sometimes replaces other sounds especially /t/
silent letter
A letter in a word which is written but which does not influence the pronunciation.
assimilation
When a sound in connected speech becomes similar to a neighbouring sound.
bilabial
A sound produced with both lips e.g. / m / , / b /.
plosive
A sound produced by blocking air then releasing it suddenly. This creates a popping sound e.g. / p / , / t / , / ̋ /.
labio dental
A sound produced on the lips and teeth e.g. / f / , / v /.
fricative
A sound produced by creating friction in the air flow e.g. / f / , / â / , / Ω / , / h / , / Ü /
palate
It's the roof of the mouth. Sounds can be produced on the hard ____ or the soft ____ (velum).
dental
Involving the teeth. Sounds like (/ ä / , / Ü /) are made with the teeth.
velum
The soft palate
velar
The adjective from velum. Velar sounds are made by moving the tongue towards the velum.
velar sounds
They are made by moving the tongue towards the velum. Examples of these sounds in English are: /k/, /g/
nasal
A sound produced by air passing through the nose
palate
It's the roof of the mouth in humans.
elision
When a sound is left out because it is followed by a similar sound.
consonant cluster
Two or more consonants occurring together at the beginning or end of a syllable
strong form
Many words are not pronounced fully. When they are to emphasise a point they become strong forms.