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To get learners interested in a task or topic.
Teachers believe their learners will or will not know something or how they will behave in a lesson.
To think about what learners might find difficult or whether their previous experience could affect their learning in the lesson
activate previous knowledge
To get learners to think about and to say what they know about a topic.
The things that a teacher uses in a class, e.g. handouts, pictures, flashcards.
Time teachers wait to give learners time to respond to questions.
An activity that a teacher uses at the beginning of a lesson to give the class more energy.
A picture, a diagram etc. the learners can look at which can help teachers illustrate form or meaning.
A list of things that a learner or teacher needs to focus on or consider.
Diagrams, lists or drawings placed on the classroom wall for learners to refer to.
art and craft activity
A classroom activity in which learners make something with their hands, such as an origami animal or a mini-book. Learners often follow instructions from a teacher or a coursebook in order to make the item.
T help learners understand the use and rules by focusing on form, meaning and pronunciation.
The strategies used by a teacher to organise the classroom, the learning and the learners.
A classroom activity in which learners need to talk or write to one another to complete the activity.
to check that learners have understood a new structure or item of lexis.
a question to make sure that a learner has understood the meaning of new language
When and how teachers give equal attention to all of the learners in the class.
Providing help or encouragement.
To prompt learners to give the target language or information
When a teacher helps learners to succeed by giving them confidence.
To order or tell someone to do something.
to make sure students are doing their tasks, and help them in problems.
When a teacher helps a learner to connect new words, topics, texts or grammar to their own life.
To tell someone they have done well, e.g. That’s excellent. Well done!
To help learners think of ideas or to remember a word or phrase by giving them a part of it.
Teacher corrects learner's mistake by repeating the sentence but not drawing attention to the mistake.
When the teacher is seen as the source of all knowledge and acts as the provider of knowledge.
Refers to the different functions a teacher can have in a class.
teacher role assessor
Checks understanding, evaluates learners’ performance, behaviour, and contribution. Provides feedback.
teacher role as contributor
Contributing ideas or information other than language, e.g. participating in discussions.
teacher role as counsellor
Giving learners advice on difficulties they may have outside of their language class.
teacher role diagnostician
Diagnosing, evaluating learners’ needs and difficulties.
teacher role as facilitator
Developing learner autonomy. Helping learners to access resources. Providing opportunities.
teacher role as language resource
Clarifying language. Correcting learner language. Explaining language. Modelling language.
teacher role as manager
Managing the learners, the lessons and procedures in the classroom.
teacher role as monitor observer
Monitoring, observing and collecting information about learner performance, contribution and effort.
teacher role as narrator
Narrating stories and things that have happened.
teacher role as planner
Deciding on a methodology for lessons. Designing and adapting texts and materials for lessons.
teacher role as reflector
Thinking about his/her own performance. Reflecting on learners’ progress.
Not being helpful or encouraging.
rapport build rapport
The relationship between the teacher and learners.
Teachers who look back on the lessons to improve their teaching.