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Level 25

Advanced Grammar


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conditional
A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation.
first conditional
refers to present or future possible or likely situations
second conditional
refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossible or unlikely
third conditional
refers to past situations that cannot be changed
mixed conditional
is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence
conjunction
used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences
connected speech
Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds.
connotation
The associations of a word in a subjective way based on cultural background.
consolidate
To return to something in order to allow learners to understand and remember it more completely.
consult
To get advice or information from someone or something,
content and language integrated learning
An approach where L2 is used to learn a non-language subject in a joint role.
content based instruction
An approach to teach L2 in order to enable students to integrate into mainstream classes.
content word
A word which carries the main meaning.
funcion word
A word that performs a grammatical function and carries little meaning.
substitution table
A grid giving a choice of grammatical forms
word level
Includes looking at the use of technical vocabulary, adjectives, quantities.
word map
A diagram which is used to make a visual record of vocabulary on the same topic
wordsearch
A grid with one square containing a letter. Words are hidden in the grid and learners have to find them.
setting the context
To use or present language using audio, visual or experiences to introduce the function.
sentence context
The words or phrases around a certain word to help understand its meaning.
contextualise
To put new language into a situation that shows what it means.
contrast
To compare the differences between two things.
contribute
To give or add something.
cooperate
Working together and helping each other.
co ordinating conjunction
Conjunctions which link two grammatical units which have the same grammatical status.
core
The most important, central or most basic part of something.
cataphoric reference
Reference to something that occurs later in the text; with pronouns or lexical chains
echo correction
When teacher repeats learner's mistake with rising intonation so students correct themselves.
anaphoric reference
refering to information previously brought up in the text; often achieved through use of pronouns or lexical chains
finger correction
T counts out the words that the learner said and points at the word (finger) with the mistake.
causative passive
A use of the passive to express the idea of making something happen
self correction
When learners correct language mistakes they have made.
fronting
Putting part of an utterance in a non standard position usually to emphasise the topic
correction code
Symbols a teacher uses to mark learners’ writing so that they can correct mistakes by themselves.
complex sentence
A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
cross reference
A note that tells the reader to go to another place in the book to get more information.
word boundary
Where one word ends and the next one begins, especially in connected speech.
reduced relative clause
A relative clause in which the relative pronoun and possibly the auxiliary have been left out.
root word
The core word or part of a word from which other words can be made by adding a prefix or suffix