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A verb form that refers to a possible or imagined situation.
refers to present or future possible or likely situations
refers to present or future situations which the speaker thinks are impossible or unlikely
refers to past situations that cannot be changed
is used when the speaker wants to refer to different time frames in one sentence
used to connect words, phrases, clauses or sentences
Spoken language in which the words join to form a connected stream of sounds.
The associations of a word in a subjective way based on cultural background.
To return to something in order to allow learners to understand and remember it more completely.
To get advice or information from someone or something,
content and language integrated learning
An approach where L2 is used to learn a non-language subject in a joint role.
content based instruction
An approach to teach L2 in order to enable students to integrate into mainstream classes.
A word which carries the main meaning.
A word that performs a grammatical function and carries little meaning.
A grid giving a choice of grammatical forms
Includes looking at the use of technical vocabulary, adjectives, quantities.
A diagram which is used to make a visual record of vocabulary on the same topic
A grid with one square containing a letter. Words are hidden in the grid and learners have to find them.
setting the context
To use or present language using audio, visual or experiences to introduce the function.
The words or phrases around a certain word to help understand its meaning.
To put new language into a situation that shows what it means.
To compare the differences between two things.
To give or add something.
Working together and helping each other.
co ordinating conjunction
Conjunctions which link two grammatical units which have the same grammatical status.
The most important, central or most basic part of something.
Reference to something that occurs later in the text; with pronouns or lexical chains
When teacher repeats learner's mistake with rising intonation so students correct themselves.
refering to information previously brought up in the text; often achieved through use of pronouns or lexical chains
T counts out the words that the learner said and points at the word (finger) with the mistake.
A use of the passive to express the idea of making something happen
When learners correct language mistakes they have made.
Putting part of an utterance in a non standard position usually to emphasise the topic
Symbols a teacher uses to mark learners’ writing so that they can correct mistakes by themselves.
A sentence containing a main clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
A note that tells the reader to go to another place in the book to get more information.
Where one word ends and the next one begins, especially in connected speech.
reduced relative clause
A relative clause in which the relative pronoun and possibly the auxiliary have been left out.
The core word or part of a word from which other words can be made by adding a prefix or suffix