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A mistake that a learner makes when trying to say something beyond their level.
An error that has become a permanent feature of a learner’s language as a habit.
An error made as part of the normal development.
The process in which incorrect language becomes a habit and cannot easily be corrected.
When learner’s mother tongue affects performance in the target language.
To reword a sentence or phrase to improve it.
Teacher corrects learner's mistake by repeating the sentence but not drawing attention to the mistake
First language you learn as a baby. L1. Mother tongue.
Using a grammatical rule in situations where it is not needed, or it is inappropriate.
First language you learn as a baby. L1. First language.
Think actively about new information in order to understand it completely and be able to use it in future.
Newer version of grammatical systems a learner creates when learning a new language.
A mistake caused by lack of concentration.