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Phonemes


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bilabial
Formed at the two lips /p/ /b/ /m/ /w/
labiodental
Formed at the lips & teeth /f/ /v/
dental
Formed at the teeth /θ/ /ð/
alveolar
Formed at the tooth ridge /t/ /d/ /s/ /z/ /n/ /l/
palato alveolar
Formed at the tip of the tongue approaching the tooth ridge /ʃ/ /ʒ/ /ʧ/ /ʤ/ /r/
palatal
Formed at the hard palate /j/
glottal
Formed at the gap between vocal cords /h/
velar
Formed at the soft palate /k/ /g/ /ŋ/
plosive
(stop) A sound created by quickly releasing built up air /p/ /b/ /t/ /d/
fricative
A sound created by forcing breath through a constricted passage /f/ /v/ /θ/ /ð/ /s/ /z/ /ʃ/ /ʒ/
affricate
A sound created with a stop, constriction of airflow, and a sudden release /ʧ/ /ʤ/
approximant
No interruption in sound / glide (includes semi-vowels, laterals) /w/ /r/ /j/ /l/
nasal
A sound made through the nose /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
voiced
Made with vibration /b/ /d/ /ʤ/ /g/ /v/ /ð/ /z/ /ʒ/ /n/ /ŋ/ /l/ /r/ /w/ /j/
unvoiced
Made without vibration /p/ /t/ /ʧ/ /k/ /f/ /θ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /h/
centering diphthong
Combination of two vowels that glide towards /ə/ -- /ɪə/ /ʊə/ /eə/
closing diphthong
Combination of two vowels that glide towards an end vowel /ɪ/ -- /eɪ/ /ɔɪ/ /aɪ/ or /ʊ/ -- /əʊ/ /aʊ/
vowel
A sound produced without significant obstruction of airflow