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Level 6

Discourse


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genre
Language systems dynamic and unique to particular cultures with identifying characteristics (grammatical, lexical, structural)
register
Variations in language (lexico-grammatical patterns, schematic structure) related to use in context by particular groups
field
Subject matter and institutional focus of a text. What is happening
tenor
Role relationships, status and formality. Who is involved
mode
Channel and method of communication. What the language does
coherence
Meaning of overall message and clarity of communication. On topic
cohesion
Connections between ideas and structures. "Nuts & bolts"
cohesive devices
Reference, tense agreement, substitution, ellipsis, conjunctions, lexical groups and repetition
nominalization
Changing verbal processes into nouns, especially in formal writing
speech event
A dialogue with a purpose, either stated directly or implied (pragmatics)
anaphoric reference
Pointing backwards in the text
cataphoric reference
Pointing forwards in the text
exophoric reference
Pointing to context, shared knowledge or person deixis
nominal substitution
Replacing a noun phrase with a single word
ellipsis
Omission of content that is unnecessary or obvious from context
style
Formality