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Receptive Skills & Input Theories


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top-down
Understanding through overall context, adding information as it comes
bottom-up
Understanding information by assembling step by step
schema
Making connections with a concept through interior world of meaning & knowledge
schematic content
Experience, world knowledge, context
formal schematic knowledge
Genre, form, text type
cooperative Principle
Sender provides true, brief, relevant, and clear information
comprehension
Correct interpretation of an utterance's intended meaning
deductive learning
Direct instruction of rules to use with specific examples
inductive learning
Exposure to proper use to discover rules
guided discovery
Eliciting rules from examples, concept questions, context before or after practice
affective filter
Emotional state can limit effectiveness of comprehensive input
input
Language is needed with structure slightly beyond current level as communicative need allows natural production ability to emerge after "silent period"
natural order
Acquisition of grammatical structures follows predictable order regardless of L1
acquisition/learning
One is subconcious feel for what is correct while the other is conscious studying of rules
monitor
Self-editing affects communicative competence, whether learners focus on their own fluency or accuracy
noticing
Learners pick up patterns in language formation to aid understanding
interlanguage
The midpoint between a language's grammar and the system a learner has in mind
silent period
Learners, like children, go through a period of just listening before using language