Level 2
Level 1

Methodology


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grammar translation
Rule focused, drilling rules and parts of speech deductively with a focus on accuracy
direct method
Only uses the target language by demonstrating, using pictures, objects, etc.
behaviourist
Language learning as habit formation, which sees any errors as bad
structural analysis
Language formed into patterns to organize into combinations of tense and aspect (Bloomfield)
audiolingual method
A focus on drilling sentence forms with spoken accuracy emphasized
mentalism
Humans genetically carry language acquisition devices (universal grammar), language is dynamic & creative
cognitive code
Learners form rules by forming hypotheses and testing them until automaticity develops
krashen
Second language acquisition similar to first, which is why comprehensive input necessary
humanism
Personal growth and development motivates learner to become engaged emotionally and intellectually
community language learning
Learners decide content of lesson and teacher consults, providing relevant language (Curran)
the silent way
Teacher's role is minimalist, using fidel charts and cuisenaire rods, as learner should control process (Gattegno)
suggestopaedia
Learners must be relaxed to facilitate subconscious learning process (Lozanov)
total physical response
Learners understand input so shouldn't have to speak until ready. Learners respond to commands
communicative
Focus on language being used in real life rather than just systems. Deep vs. shallow end
notional functional
A meaning based syllabus that focuses on universal concepts in most grammars
dogme
Overcoming dependence on coursebooks, using discovery techniques, scaffolding, negotiation of meaning (Thornbury)
content and language integrated learning
Teaching a subject through English, without language syllabus, similar to immersion programs
input factors
Language must be necessary, sufficient and efficient (Long)
output hypothesis
Learners need to produce language to learn (Swain)
task based learning
Lessons start with topic development, moving to practice and then language analysis. Focus on meaning before form. (Prabhu, Willis)
observe hypothesize experiment
Guided exploration and discovery aids retention as real language use doesn't follow structure based organization (Lewis)
authentic use restricted use clarification
Communicative tasks, controlled practice, and a focus on form in any order or combination (Scrivener)
engage study activate
Appeal to logic & emotion, focus on form with transmission or discovery, and then process language in text / express language (Harmer & Rossner)
test teach test
Learners do something while observed, then are taught what they don't know and checked again to see what they learned
present practice produce
Language is given and the learners use it in a controlled situation first before using it freely