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Humanism and Traits


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self actualization
fulfillment of one's full potential; the ultimate psychological need after basic physical and psychological needs
peak experience
a state of bliss that can be induced after self-actualization
unconditional positive regard
an attitude of total acceptance toward another person
self concept
our collection of thoughts and feelings about ourselves
self esteem
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
self serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably and attribute failures to external forces
spotlight effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluation of us
trait
a characteristic molecule of behavior or a disposition to feel or act a certain way
personality inventory
a questionnaire designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors to assess selected personality traits
empirically derived test
a test developed by selecting from a large pool of items those that discriminate between groups
Myers Briggs Type Indicator
a personality inventory based on Jungian archetypes; uses scales on extroversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceiving
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
the most widely researched and used personality test; developed to identify emotional disorders and used for many screening purposes; developed by Costa and McCrae
Big Five
the factors conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion; used for many screening purposes
person situation controversy
the debate of what most influences personality: the individual or the scenario
Gordon Allport
a pioneer of personality; came up with traits as a rigorous but humane model
Eysenck
Hans and Sybil; identified the personality dimensions of extroversion and emotional stability
Jerome Kagan
the psychologist who showed that innate temperament is somewhat inheritable and stable over time