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Psychoanalysis


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personality
an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
free association
a psychoanalytic method of probing the unconscious where the patient says whatever comes to mind
psychoanalysis
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious conflicts
unconscious
the bulk of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories; information processing are unaware of
preconscious
the level of consciousness where a thought is accessible but not conscious
id
the unconscious reservoir of primitive psychic energy, ethos and thanatos, basic sexual and aggressive drives
ego
the conscious mediator between the id's demands, the superego's morals, and reality
superego
the part of personality that represents internalized ideals, standards for judgment, and future aspirations
pleasure principle
the id's tendency to seek immediate gratification and avoid suffering, whether symbolic or real
reality principle
the ego's mature tendency to delay gratifying the id in favor of long-term, nondestructive satisfaction
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages when the id focuses on specific erogenous zones for pleasure
erogenous zone
a sensitive part of the body, stimulation of which pleases the id
oral stage
the psychosexual stage from birth to 18 months, focusing on the mouth
anal stage
the psychosexual stage from 18 to 36 months, focusing on the control and elimination of solid waste
phallic stage
the psychosexual stage from 3 to 6 years, focusing on the penis, when the Oedipus Complex occurs
latent stage
the psychosexual stage from 6 years to puberty, when libido is repressed
genital stage
the psychosexual stage from puberty on, when libido is directed to the opposite sex
Oedipus complex
a boy's sexual desires for his mother and jealousy of the rival father
identification
the resolution of the Oedipus complex, when a child shares castration anxiety or penis envy with their same-sex parent and incorporates their values into their superego
fixation
a lingering focus of the id on an earlier, unresolved psychosexual stage
defense mechanisms
the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality
repression
the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts from consciousness
regression
the defense mechanism of retreating to a more infantile psychosexual stage
reaction formation
the defense mechanism where unacceptable impulses are manifested as their opposites
projection
the defense mechanism of seeing one's own threatening impulses in others
rationalization
the defense mechanism of justifying an action to avoid its real unconscious reasons
displacement
the defense mechanism of directing the id's impulses toward a more acceptable object or person
sublimation
the defense mechanism of transforming the id's impulses into socially acceptable feelings and actions
collective unconscious
Jung's concept of shared, inherited memory traces from our species' history
projective test
a personality test of ambiguous stimuli to trigger projection of unconscious feelings
Thematic Apperception Test
a projective test of making up stories about ambiguous scenes
Rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, symmetric blobs of ink
terror-management theory
the theory that faith in one's worldview provides protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
Alfred Adler
the psychodynamicist who introduced the inferiority complex
Karen Horney
the psychodynamicist who tried to equalize males and females in Freud's theory
Carl Jung
the psychodynamicist who pulled attention from the id to the ego and introduced archetypes