Level 2 Level 4
Level 3


166 words 0 ignored

Ready to learn       Ready to review

Ignore words

Check the boxes below to ignore/unignore words, then click save at the bottom. Ignored words will never appear in any learning session.

All None

the process of providing or obtaining the food for health and growth. (New Oxford American Dictionary)
What we take in for our metabolic processes, for growth, for repair
Food intake to give us the basic resources we need to run and repair our bodies.
Enriched White Flour
Bleached and stripped of nutrients, invested with token nutrients. Stripped of all nutritional value and “enriched” with synthetic vitamins.
Specific chemicals that an environment supplies the organism with, that are necessary for survival. Ex: Vitamins
carbohydrates, proteins, fats
vitamins and minerals
What happens if vitamins are missing in adequate amounts from the body?
Digestion breaks down food/nutrients we eat into smaller structures than can be absorbed into and transported in the bloodstream.
Refers to the way that we chemically alter these nutrients. Net of all chemical exchange in the body. All the energy we put in (eating) and all the energy we spend out (regulating heat, sweating, di
Nutrient production
Many nutrients can be created from other nutrients that we eat. Essential nutrients cannot be made by our body so they must come from the diet.
Many nutrients can be created from other nutrients that we eat.
Making sugar out of protein. Atkins diet - they don't eat carbohydrates, they make them.
Many nutrients can be created from other nutrients that we eat.
Making sugar out of protein or fat. Atkins diet - they don't eat carbohydrates, they make them.
What do brain illnesses thrive on?
Sugar. If you don't have sugar in the blood flow, the cancer can't grow.
Problems with Atkins
We make a lot of ketones when we eat fats and proteins and these are slightly toxic. They can tox out kidney and liver. This is why diabetics have problems with their kidneys because they are making sugar out of fats and proteins and thus have higher ketone levels.
Why is the Atkin's diet good treatment for people with certain types of brain cancer?
Because you can't easily make sugar out of proteins and fats, you are not taking in carbohydrates.
Is the Atkin's diet a good way to loose weight?
It is good on a short-term basis
What factors determine our appetite?
1) Hormones 2) Smell taste texture 3) Stretch receptors in stomach tell us that we are full (Without chewing properly your food is not absorbed properly) 4) Psychological factors
What kinds of hormones determine the appetite?
Especially those that affect the hypothalamus of the brain (arcuate nucleus)
1) Hormone secreted by the pancreas 2) Stimulates the removal of glucose from the bloodstream and drives it into cell wall
How does insulin stimulate the removal of glucose from the bloodstream?
1) stimulates adipocytes to make fat
Is glucose stored for a long or short time in the blood?
Short time.
What is the only way we can generate an ATP molecule?
We have to have a receptor on the cell wall or insulin to allow it to open up so we can do that kreb cycle.
How does insulin stimulate the removal of glucose from the bloodstream?
1) stimulates adipocytes to make fat 2) stimulates other cells to make glycogen
Neuropeptide Y
1) hypothalamic neurotransmitter 2) stimulates appetite
Why do we start breaking down fat?
When we don't have any calories coming in we break down fat into sugar for a source of energy.
What is a key to digestion?
Make large molecules as small as possible by chewing. Digestion starts in the mouth
What does insulin stimulate?
What are adipocytes?
They are fat cells. Large cells filled up with blob of fat. Storage container for fat.
What is glycogen?
Primary form of longterm energy storage molecule that mammals favor including humans. Stored in muscles and liver. 12-hour storage/reservoir.
Hormones that stimulate and suppress appetite work specifically on which brain structure?
Hypothalamus (one of the most basic parts of the brain)
What does the hypothalamus and appetite control a lot of?
Our metabolics.
What are our metabolics?
How do we stimulate the appetite?
We usually use a hypothalamic neurotransmitter such as neuropeptide Y.
Neuropeptide Y is the specific neurotransmitter stimulates or inhibits the appetite?
What happens if we stimulate or inhibit neuropeptide Y?
If I put out more neuropeptide Y I become hungrier. If I inhibit neuropeptide Y I will suppress my appetite.
What is neuropeptide Y?
It is a stimulatory neurotransmitter for appetite meaning that it upregulates
What are two other chemicals that interact with our appetite?
Leptin and Ghrelin
What is leptin?
Leptin is a neurotransmitter that is secreted by adipocytes (fat cells) in response to caloric intake. How does the leptin process work?
Does leptin stimulate or inhibit neuropeptide Y?
Leptin does the opposite of neuropeptide Y
What is leptin a response to?
Typically when we eat your fat cells will make leptin.
What happens when we don't eat?
Your stomach will make the chemical ghrelin.
What does ghrelin do?
Ghrelin will promote the stimulation of neuropeptide Y which is going to increase your appetite. This happens when you don't have food in your stomach. Increase hunger.
What does fasting mean?
It can be as little as eight hours.
What happens if you don't eat early in the morning?
Your body is going to assume you are starving in the desert and your body will hold onto calories
What is one of the easiest ways to lose weight?
Eat breakfast because it kick starts all your metabolics and allows you to start burning calories more than you don't eat breakfast.
In order to make chemicals and run metabolism efficiently rather than slowing it down.
What are the macronutrients?
Some basics about carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates are the 1) easiest to assimilate 2) made up of simple and complex sugars 3) digested for energy and structural components.
What are simple sugars?
1) Mono- and di-saccharides 2) burned through really quickly thus empty calories 3) not rich in nutrients.
When on a diet what kind of carbs should one eat?
Complex carbohydrates because it takes a while for the body to break them down into their useable components.
What are polysaccharides?
Chains of more complicated sugars - starch alcohol cellulose glycogen
How long does energy last for simple versus complex carbohydrates?
Energy lasts longer for more complicated carbohydrates opposed to the insulin spikes gained from simple sugars followed by depression phase when the glucose gets low.
Why are carbohydrates the energy macronutrient of choice?
Carbohydrates are very energy rich
Metabolism of carbohydrates
Digestion breaks down ingested carbs into monosaccharides than they can be absorbed
Where does chemical digestion begin?
Chewing in the mouth anylase begins to break down complicated carbohydrates into sugar otherwise it is mechanical digestion of breaking things with the teeth.
What can be converted into a form of glucose?
Most sugars otherwise proteins and fats but it takes more effort and longer.
What is a problem with a unwell designed diet?
If you go along with too few calories your body still needs energy to regulate temperature etc then body will eventually start breaking down muscles as calories instead of fat because muscles burn calories first.
the breakdown of complex molecules in living organisms to form simpler ones
How soon after exercising do you need to put protein back in your system before going catabolic?
30 minutes.
How many calories are in 1 lb. of body weight?
3500 calories.
What is the chemical formula for glucose?
What do we do with glucose?
What is respiration?/What happens to respiration when there is excess calories?
1) Glucose turn into water
What is glycogenesis?What happens if we have too much calories?
1) Creation of glycogen to store excess calories 2) Lipogenesis.
What is lipogenesis?
It is for long-term storage of calories.
What do we use fat for?
Insulation around nervous system and organs.
What is glycogen?
1) A medium-term storage place/molecule for energy 2) Liver will store about 100g 3) Muscle tissue will store about 200g
When will we break down glycogen and turn it into glucose?
When our blood glucose drops and we don't have enough sugar.
How long does glycogen broken down last?
It only lasts about 12 hours depending on your muscle mass.
What happens to alcoholics?
1) Fatty liver disease (cirrhosis of the liver) 2) High calorie alcohol - liver gets filled with fat because of excess calories - it cannot make enough glycogen because the liver is filtering the excess poison of alcohol which leeches into the liver by making fat.
Where are most toxins filtered?
Most toxins are filtered through the liver and thus can cause liver disease (some chemicals don't even go to the liver they just go to the kidney.
Conversion factors
1) 454 grams in a pound 2) 2.2 pounds in a kilogram 3) 1000 grams in a kilogram
What are some artificial sweeteners?
1) Aspartame: 200x as sweet as sugar 2) Saccharin: 300 x 3) Sucralose (splenda): sucrose with chloride attached
Are artificial sweeteners (fake sugars) good or bad and why?
Yes. Saccharine causes retinal cancer in mice. Aspartame and saccharine are classified as cyto-toxins toxic to the brain and nervous system. Harmful in large amounts. Has been shown to increase caloric hoarding.
What are Lipids and what kind of types are there?
1) Fats 2) organic (carbon
What are fats?
Typically higher energy-literally twice as many calories as a protein or a carb.
Fats can be saturated or unsaturated. Describe each.
Unsaturated means there are double carbon bonds (mono and poly) whereas saturated means each carbon is bonded to a hydrogen.
Why are saturated fats bad for you?
Just remember for now that saturated are un-good! (meats) Unsaturated are better for you (plants).
Where is most of our cholesterol manufactured?
By the body in the liver.
Where does dietary cholesterol come from?
Cholesterol in the diet only comes from meats (and products from animals e.g. milk)
What do we make out of cholesterol?
Hormones like the 1) sex hormones - testosterone and androgen 2) essential part of the cell wall of every cell of your body.
What is the difference between good and bad cholesterol?
We will get into this later.
Measuring fat content in food.
If we are going to examine fat content in food MEASURE CALORIES.
Why is talking about fat content by percentage and weight bogus?
Because if you remove the water there will be a much higher fat content than the reported 1% based on weight.
What are triglycerides?
1) A super important energy molecule in the body 2) Used like glycogen as a storage place for excess energy.
Where can triglycerides (fats) be found?
They flow in your blood - not a good thing if too much (like cholesterol or even more dangerous especially for people with cardiovascular risk).
Composition of Triglycerides
Broken down into glycerol parent molecule and branched or unbranched fatty acids chains
What can fatty acids be used to be converted into?
Energy molecule - ATP.
What do we produce when we start to break down a lipid (triglyceride)?
1) We will start producing ketones (acetone)
What is the problem with too much ketones in the blood?
Ketones are acidic
Who might likely have ketosis and why would ketosis by unhealthy?
1) Too much acid in blood
What are some features of ketones?
1) Ketones are acidic 2) If they are formed faster than they can be decomposed they are eliminated in the lungs and kidneys 3) Ketones add a fruity smell to the breath (and urine).
Review Fat Metabolism
Nutrition ppt Slide 22
The body can turn one type of fatty acid into another. What are the exceptions?
linoleic and linolenic acid because they are essential fatty acids.
What are lipoproteins?
1) Lipoproteins are both fat and protein deposits 2) Lipids non-polar and don’t dissolve well in the blood 3) If I want fat in my blood I bond it to something water friendly like proteins 4) Lipoproteins are classified based upon their density.
Omega-3 fatty acids I
Separated into 3/6/9 all necessary on some level but 3 is the least irritating and anti-inflammatory
Lipoproteins are classified based on their density
1) VLDS very low density lipoprotein-high proportion of triglycerides 2) LDLs Low density lipoprotein-high proportion of cholesterol 3) HDLs: High density lipoprotein-high proportion of protein
Omega-3 fatty acids II
1) Fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated 2) Omega-3 fatty acids have a double bond between the 3rd and 4th carbon atoms 3) Omega-3 found in fish (red meat has omega-6 fatty acids) 4) Nerve cells covered in fatty myelin sheath
1) Changing the natural chemistry of herbivore by feeding it corn does make it harmful. 2) Good for your brain. 3) Olive oil and cheese but must be turned into animal form
1) Organic Compounds 2) Composed of 20 amino acids 3) amino acids form peptides bonds forming polypeptides
Metabolism of Proteins - I
1) Broken down into separate amino acids so that they can be absorbed into the bloodstream 2) Digested for structural components and energy 3) Breakdown for energy produces urea which is excreted in the urine. 4) Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
Metabolism of Proteins - II
Use proteins to build things as well as turn into glucose to run into crebs cycle (See slide 29).
Complete Proteins
1) Contains all aa 2) Found in meat 3) Grain and legume - example rice lacks lysine but has methionine and beans lack methionine but has lysine 4) Note about corn: traditionally low in tryptophan-genetically modified to have more tryptophan.
1) Break down our own tissues to get the energy we need 2) Most likely to use protein from our muscles as a primary source of catabolic metabolism 3) Thus if we do not eat enough calories we will digest our own muscle tissue which is detrimental 4) Thus simply cutting calories is not good for losing weight because it eventually amount to chewing on your own muscle mass
1) Amount of heat necessary to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius 2) We refer to C as 1000 calories or kilocalories 3) The amount of potential energy in food is measured in calories. 4) A calorie is a unit of heat (calorie). 5) Food industry uses Calories i.e. kilocalories (the amount of heat necessary to raise one kilogram of water one degree centigrade.)
How are calories measured?
Bomb calorimeter
Calories Intake with Food
1) Our breakdown of food is not 100% efficient 2) Waste some of the nutritional value of food 3) We rarely chew our food properly 4) We don't have optimal digestive health 5) we take non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 5) Gut lining thus irritated and we are not able to absorb nutrients properly
Calorie Uptake in Food Groups
1) carbohydrate and protein: 4.1 calories per gram 2) fat: 9.5 calories per gram
What is the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)?
1) It is the summation of your energy expenditure when awake and at rest 2) Average adult BMR = 1 calorie per hour (24 per day) per kilogram of body weight 3) Example: 150 lb person: approximately --> 70 calories per hour (1680 per day) 4) (105/2.2)24 = 1200
Caloric Demands
1) sitting at a desk: approx. 100 calories per hour (in addition to BMR) 2) running/swimming: approx. 500-600 calories per hour (in addition to BMR) 3) Doesn't take into effect how dense the bones are.
Energy Balance
1) “All diet plans-no matter which foods they stress-boil down to this fact: to maintain weight-calories in must equal calories out.” (Hole text) 2) One pound of fat represents approximately 3500 calories.
Body mass index (BMI)
1) BMI: Weight compared to height. 2) Overweight defined as being 10-20% over ideal weight (BMI 25-30). 3) Greater than 20% above (>BMI 30): obese 4) Note: technically
1) Micronutrients that we need in small amounts or we get a disease 2) Some taken from the body 3) Most from external sources 4) If you are a true vegetarian you can't get B12 from a plant source 4) B12 comes from animal protein
1) Organic compounds 2) Body cannot synthesize in adequate amounts so must be taken in the diet (either directly or made from provitamins)
Fat soluble: A D E K details
1) By definition toxic because we don't pee out fat 2) Essential for calcium absorption 3) Osteoporosis – vitamin D deficiency 4) Can give larger doses because it stays in the system 5) Night blindness caused by deficiency in A
ii. Water soluble: B’s and C detail
1) If you have too much you will pee it out 2) B by self you become other B deficient 3) B vitamins are selectively absorbed so you need to take a multivitamin for balance so you don't get other B deficiencies due to forcing the body to get rid of other B's.
Are all vitamins created equally?
No! 1) Better to take a pebble off the floor than a Centrum and GNC 2) Number of ingredients are undigestible in humans
Stability of Vitamins
Vitamins can be destroyed/denatured by: 1) heat 2) pH change 3) oxidation 4) exposure to light 5) The stability of each vitamin varies. 6) Note: vitamins leaching out when cooked...
Fat soluble vitamins again!
1) A D E K 2) excess in diet stored in the body so overdose possible
Why shouldn't you buy fat soluble vitamins that have been stored in a huge tube near in hot conditions and under ultra-violet light?
Because they have a fat component becomes rancid when they are exposed to ultra-violet light and heat. This applies to essential fatty acids like flax seed oil/fish oil or vitamin E.
Where should essential fatty acids like flax seed oil/fish oil or vitamin E be stored?
Cold place removed from UV light like sunlight. Rotten oil is no longer a vitamin. Keep them in a cooler room or fridge which limits heat and UV exposure.
Vitamin A - detail-I
1) Two forms: retinol and retinal 2) Created from carotenes (carrots) 3) Stored in the liver enough for a year in an adult
Functions of Vitamin A - Important in: (this is what goes wrong)
1) Vision with rods and cones 2) As an antioxidant reduces the oxidative stress - a) O2 is toxic
Sources of vitamin A
1) Animal origin: liver-fish-whole milk-butter-eggs 2) Plant origin (carotenes): leafy green vegetables-yellow or orange vegetables-fruit-Anything bright in color that is not poisonous tends to be very antioxidant fights free radicals and oxidative decay- strawberries-blueberries-dark leafy greens-peppers.
Would taking large amounts of vitamin A help your vision?
No! Large amount of vitamins can actually be toxic - especially the fat soluble ones which will not pee out in excess
Vitamin D details and storage
1) Group of steroids (Vitamins D1 - D5) 2) Vitamin D3 is cholecalciferol 3) Vitamin D2 is ergocalciferol 4) Primarily stored in the liver
What form of Vitamin D do we usually use?
D3 or Calciferal
What is vitamin D used for?
Vitamin D is used to make strong bones and is good for absorption.
Where is vitamin D made?
Vitamin D is made in the skin when we are exposed to UV light (sunlight) without sunscreen on.
Sunscreen and vitamin D
Sunscreen is good at preventing cancer but does not allow us the light exposure we need to take in vitamin D
Where do we get vitamin D?
1) The sun 2) animal sources directly and supplemented with dairy products-milk-egg 3) some yeast will manufacture vit D (bread)
How do we get vitamin D from the sun?
Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin (from dietary cholesterol) if exposed to ultraviolet light (only need 5 minutes a day
Food language - fortified versus enriched?
Fortified means they added something that is not usually there and enriched typically means that the food was highly processed and then nutrients were put back in.
Functions of vitamin D
Help absorb calcium (and phosphorus) in the intestines.
What do deficiencies in vitamin D cause?
Particularly in the third world 1) Rickets in children-long bones deformed because he didn't get enough calcium absorbed and bones became malformed simply from load bearing. 2) Osteomalacia in adults-"bad bones" not as strong as they should be
Vitamin E
1) Alpha-tocopherol 2) Primarily stored in the muscles and adipose 3) Found in most foods (plant and animal sources) 4) Strong anti-oxidant
Vitamin K
We don't make our own K - We don't typically ingest K 1) Created by our intestinal bacteria 2) Food sources: leafy green vegetables
What does Vitamin K deficiency results in?
Increased blood clotting time (increases risk of hemorrhage).
The following things depend on vitamin K
1) How strong your blood vessels are 2) how well platelets stick together 3) colligen fibers of your skin 4) digestion
Vitamin K deficiencies
People bleed more aggressively
Vitamins B's and C
1) Water soluble 2) you can pee them out thus hard to overdose
B vitamins
B1: thiamine B2: riboflavin B3: niacin B5: pantothenic acid B6: pyridoxine (pyridoxal
What are B vitamins necessary for?
1) Metabolics energy (running energy pathways in the body) 2) help process to gain energy but they don't give us energy 3) red blood cells
Functions of Vitamin B
1) As a group - B vitamins function in the respiration of glucose 2) Vitamin B12 and folic acid are also particularly important for rbc (erythrocyte) synthesis. 3) (They also function to: break down fats
synthesis of proteins
Vitamin B deficiencies
Causes red-blood cell problem like anemias
What do we need vitamin B's for?
1) Manufacture of energy 2) Red blood cells
Where do we get B's?
1) Bacteria in our gut (B12 must have intrinsic factor in gut which means gut must be healthy in order in absorb it) 2) Elderly people
What is vitamin C called?
Ascorbic acid
What is vitamin used for?
Vitamin C is used to make collagen (protein) which reinforces all connective tissue in body - bones cartelige skin scar tissue
What else is vitamin C used for?
1) Detoxify things-it is an anti-oxidant 2) metabolism of a) folic acid b) certain amino acids c) certain hormones d) ron absorption.
What happens if you don't have vitamin C?
1) Your teeth fall out 2) Scurvy
1) Non carbon containing 2) Plants grown in the soil. And we get them by either eating the plants or eating the animals that ate the plants 3) Minerals can be incorporated into larger organic molecules
What happens if the soil is treated with nitrogen?
We get mineral deficiencies
What are the four major minerals?
Calcium Phosphorus Sodium Magnesium
Calcium (Ca)
1) 75% of all minerals by weight 2) a) bones b) teeth c) nerve transmission d) muscle contraction e) blood clotting.
Phosphorus (P)
Sodium (Na)
osmotic pressure of cells
Magnesium (Mg)
metabolism of ATP
Proportions of Food
1) Protein smaller than the palm of hand 2) Starch smaller than protein 3) Vegetables - other half of the plate
Trace elements (examples)
1) Iron (Fe): hemoglobin of rbcs 2) Copper (Cu): hemoglobin
Mediteranean Diet
1) large amount of leafy vegetables and fish - very little amount of starches and simple sugars
Simpler healthy eating
1) Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants. (Michael Pollan) 2) Eat less meat and junk food. Eat more vegetables and whole grains. (Mark Bittman) How much do you increase your chances of getting cancer if you eat deli meat with preservatives?