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simple past
I (knocked) on the door, and then (opened) it.
perfect infinitives
The train should (have arrived) by now. She is known (to have been) a keen tennis player.
passive verb forms
The car (has been repaired). More trees (are being planted). What (verb forms?).
past participle
Someone has (broken) the window. My computer is being (repaired).
past perfect continuous
She (had been writing) to him.
adjective
Your time is (up).
verb, adverb
I'll (look) you (up).
phrasal verb
I (look forward to) seeing you.
plural count nouns
Two (tables), several (books).
plural nouns
Trousers, clothes, scissors, sunglasses, etc.
possessive determiners
My, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose.
possessive determiner
Have you seen (their) new house?
perfect infinitive
(To have) + (past participle).
possessive pronouns
Mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs.
predicate
His wife (is writing a book about wild flowers).
prepositions
I'll meet you (on) Monday (at) six'o'clock (outside) the cinema. I was given a book (about) birds. She refuses to talk (to) me.
prepositional phrases
(In the afternoon) I went (to the airport) to meet a friend (of mine)
present participles
She was (singing), (feeling) tired, a (boring) lesson.
simple present perfect
She (has written) to him.
present perfect continuous
She (has been writing) to him.
abstract nouns
Danger, hope, courage, luck, happiness, peace, strength, success, love.
present perfect continuous
I'(ve been looking) for you everywhere.
simple present perfect
They (have gone) on holiday. Nobody (has applied) for the job.
present perfect continuous
(Have/has) + (been) + (-ing).
simple present perfect
(Have/has) + (past participle)
present continuous
(am/are/is) + (-ing)
present continuous
They (are waiting) outside.
simple present
My parents (live) in Rome.
continuous (tense)
The children (were (digging)) a hole in the sand.
simple (tense)
The children (dug) a hole in the sand.
complete and permanent
Simple tense is ____ and ____.
incomplete or temporary
Continuous tense - ____ __ ____
qualifier
A book (about computers).
quantifiers
(Most) people, (several) of my friends, a (few) problems, (some) money, etc.
question tag
They've gone on holiday, (haven't they?).
grammatical (or real) subject
The (Veterinarian) said the dog has fleas.
rhetorical subject
The Veterinarian said (the dog) has fleas.
subject
According to the Veterinarian, (the dog) has fleas.
reflexive pronouns
Myself, himself, themselves, etc.
reflexive verb
Be careful or you will ((cut) yourself).
subject
(Who? or what?) + placed before the predicate.
some irregular verbs
Be, went, did, gave, wrote.
relative adverb
We spent two days in Bristol, (where) we stayed with my brother.
relative adverb
I shall never forget the day (when) I arrived in England.
direct (or defining) relative clause
The man (who stole the money) has been caught.
relative pronoun
Have you found the book (that) you were looking for?
reported clause
I told them (to wait outside).
reported clause
She said (that she had a headache).
reporting verb
She ((said) that she wanted to see you).
reporting verb
They ((asked) me where you were).
reflexive verb
Just relax and ((enjoy) yourselves).
personal pronouns
I, me, you, he, she, him, etc.
pronoun
(This) is a very boring book.
determiner
(This) book is very boring.
relative adverbs
Who, when, why, which, etc.
singular
Book, child, this, she, is.
stative verbs
Know, contain, own, etc.
subordinating conjunctions
Because, if, when, although, etc.
subordinating conjunctions
She went to bed (because) she was tired. (Although) he was ill, he insisted on helping me.
that-clauses
He said (that he wanted to see you). I'm surprised (that they didn't wait for you).
subordinate (or dependent) clause
Clause that tells us why, when, where, how, what, etc.
transitive verbs
She ((bought) some apples). They ((found) their passports).
object
Transitive verbs take an ________.
intransitive verbs
Everyone ((laughed.)) The train (is (coming.))
uncountable nouns
Furniture, homework, advice, equipment, information.
unit nouns
A (piece) of furniture, two (sheets) of paper, one and a half (slices) of bread.
verb phrases
He ((has written)) another book. The car ((is being repaired)).
wh-clauses
Do you know (what he wants?) (Where she has gone) remains a mystery.
wh-questions
(Who is he)? (What did she say)?
wh-words
Who, which, when, where, why.
yes/no questions
Have you seen Alex today? Did you remember to post the letters?
subordinate (or dependent) clause
She arrived an hour late (because her car broke down).
relative pronouns
Which, that, who, whom, whose.
postmodifier
A relative clause is a ____________ that is, it follows the noun or noun phrase it modifies.
relative adverbs
Where, when, why.
perfect infinitive
To have + past participle.
continuous infinitive
To be + present participle.
perfect continuous infinitive
To have been + present participle.
passive infinitive
To be + past participle.
Participles
____ can function as the main verb in tenses, as adjectives to describe a noun, and as adverbs to describe how something is done.
present participle
The _________ _________ can be used with a form of the verb ("be") to make continuous tenses - present, past, or future.
present participle
The __________ _________ can be used as a gerund.
present participle
The ___________ ___________ can be used as an adjective.
present participle as an adjective
This is a (cooking) pot. (... as ...)
present participle as a subject noun (or gerund)
(Learning) is fun. (p...)
verb, noun, noun phrase
A participle is the form of a ______ which is used in a sentence to modify a ______ or _______ ________.
present participle as an object noun (or gerund)
Shiek likes (reading). (... as ...)
Gerunds
________, because they are verbs in form, name activities or behaviors or states of mind or states of being.
Gerunds
________ can be the subject of the sentence.
Gerunds
____ can appear after prepositions.
Gerunds
_________ can appear after certain verbs.
Gerunds
_________ can appear in compound nouns.
present participle
The ________ ________ can be used as part of the continuous form of a verb.
present participle
The ____ ____ can be used after verbs of movement/position in the pattern: (verb) + (____ ____).
present participle
The _____ ________ can be used after verbs of perception in the pattern: (verb) + (object) + (_____ ________).
present participle
The ________ ________ can be used as an adjective.
finite verb
A _______ _____ is a form of a verb that shows agreement with a subject and is marked for tense.
gerund
(Smoking) is bad for your health.
complete thought
A sentence should express a ________ _______.
finite verbs
They (are) waiting for you. She (sent) me a postcard. (Have) you seen my keys?
intensifiers (or intensifying adverbs)
(Very) strange, (extremely) disappointed, (absolutely) amazing.
linking adverbs
Therefore, however, moreover, nevertheless.
direct speech
'Don't be late'
imperatives
Come here. Have a seat. Try one of these cakes.
head (head noun)
(The two (books) that you lent me were extremely interesting).
indefinite adjectives
All, another, any, both, each, either, few, many, etc.
linking verbs
My mother (is) a doctor. The children (looked) tired and hungry.
middle (or mid) position adverbs
She (often) writes to me. I had (almost) fallen asleep.
modal verbs
You (should) see a doctor. They (must) have missed the train. (Would) you like a drink?
interrogative clauses
Have you seen my umbrella anywhere? Where does he live?
auxiliary verbs
She (has) lost her passport. (Did) you go to the meeting? The new furniture (will be) delivered tomorrow.
empty subjects
(It)'s getting late. (It)'s cold in here. (It) would be quicker to.... (There)'s a hole in your sleeve. (There)'s been an accident.
appositional noun phrases
Gussie, (a glutton for punishment), stared at himself in the mirror.
adjectives
Participles are verbs that almost always act like ___________.
past participle
The _______ _________ is usually used to talk about how someone feels.
present participle
We usually use the ___________ __________ to talk about the person, thing, or situation which has caused the feeling.
participle clauses
(Dried in the sun), the leaves had turned brown. (Not wanting to disturb them), I waited outside.
active participles
Participles which take on the action of the verb and modify the noun.
passive participle
The one which takes on the passive nature of the noun and is modified. Formed with (to be) + (past participle).
present participle
The __________ _________ is one where the action is currently taking place such as (singing) and (dancing).
past participle
The ______ _________ is where the action has already taken place using past tense verb forms such as sung and written.
verbals
Infinitives, gerunds, and participles are called _________.
Infinitive
Victor wanted (to go),
gerund
Victor is (going).
present participle
(Wanting) to go, Victor put on his coat.
nouns
My (sister) is writing a long (essay) about the (life) of (Napoleon).
adjective phrases
He is the man (who is) keeping my family in the poorhouse. Merdine opened a (sweet young coconut).
gradable adjectives
James is a very (tall) boy, much (taller) than Mark, but John is the (tallest).
linking adverb
Most criminals realize that they may be caught. (Nevertheless), they are prepared to take the risk.
noun phrases
(The shop assistant) showed me (several expensive watches) and then (some cheaper ones).
objects (or direct objects)
I took (George) to the airport. She closed (the door) quietly.
simple past perfect
She (had written) to him.
past perfect continuous
She (had been writing) to him.
intensifying adverbs
(Very) strange, (extremely) disappointed, (absolutely) amazing.
past perfect continuous
Previously, he (had been working) for a newspaper.
simple past perfect
He told me that he (had left) his suitcases at the airport.