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abstract noun
An _______________ is a noun that refers to a concept or feeling.
adjective
An __________ is a word that tells us what a (person, thing, place, etc) is like. An _________ modifies a noun.
adjective phrase
An _______________ is a group of words in which the main word is an adjective.
adverb
An ________ is a word which tells us (how, when, how often, where, etc) something happens. An ________ modifies a verb.
adverbs
_______ also tell us about the degree or extent of something.
adverbial
An __________ is a word, phrase, or clause which tells us (how, when, where, why, etc) something happens.
adverbial clause
An _________ ______ is a type of subordinate clause which tells us (how, when, where, why, etc) something happens.
adverbial phrase
An _________ _________ is a group of words in which the main word is an adverb.
affirmative
A statement that does not contain any negative words is said to be __________.
negative
A statement which contains a word such as (not, never, rarely) is said to be _________.
agree
When we say that two words in a sentence must _____, we mean that they must have the same grammatical features.
antecedent
An __________ is the word or phrase that a pronoun or determiner refers back to.
apposition
When a noun phrase is followed by another noun phrase that gives more information about someone or something, the two are said to be in __________.
attributive
When we use the words __________ and 'predicative', we are talking about adjectives and their positions in a sentence.
attributive
An adjective that is placed directly before or after a noun is said to be in _________ position. It directly qualifies the noun.
predicative
An adjective that is placed after a linking verb such as (be) is said to be in ____ position. These adjectives modify the subject (or predicate) of a sentence.
auxiliary verb
An ______ ______ (e.g. be, have, can, do, must, will) is used before a main verb to make tenses, questions, passive forms, etc.
clause
A _______ is usually either a sentence or a major part of a sentence.
collective noun
A ______ ______ is a word which refers to a group (e.g. crowd, family, team).
comparative (or superlative)
A ________ is the form of an adjective or adverb that ends in (-er) or that begins with (more/less).
complement
A _________ is normally a word or phrase which describes the subject.
object complement
An _______ _________ describes the object.
compound
A ___________ is a combination of two or more words that we use as a single word.
conditional
A ________ clause is a type of subordinate clause that begins with (if, unless, etc).
conditional sentence
A _________ _________ is one that contains a conditional clause.
conjunction
A __________ is a word such as (and, or, but, because, if, when, although) which joins two parts of a sentence, or shows how they are related.
bow a bia
Mnemonic to remember common conjunctions.
consonant (or consonant sound)
A ___________ is a speech sound that is made by blocking or partly blocking the air from the lungs.
context
When a word is used in speech or writing, there are normally words before it and words after it. These surrounding words are known as the ___________.
contracted
A ___________ form is the short form of a word that we use in everyday conversation.
coordinating conjunction
A __________ __________ (and, or, but) is used to link two equal parts of a sentence.
Coordination
_____________ is the linking of equal grammatical units, usually by the means of (and, or, but).
countable noun (or count noun)
A ___________ ________ is a noun with both singular and plural forms & can be counted.
demonstratives (or demonstrative pronouns)
The ___________ (this/these) and (that/those) tell us whether something is near the speaker or at a distance from the speaker.
determiner
A __________ is a word that is frequently used at the beginning of a noun phrase, e.g. a/an, the, this, that, these, my, your, their, some, any, more, many, all, both, each, every.
disjunct
A ________ is a word or phrase that we use to express our attitude to what we are about to say.
double genitive
A _________ _________ is a structure in which (of) is followed by a possessive form.
empty subject
The term ______ _______ refers to the use of (it) and (there) in sentences. As shown, (It) and (there) are 'empty of meaning'; they merely fill the subject position.
empty object
(It) is sometimes used as an _______ ________.
finite
A _______ verb is a verb which has a tense. A _______ clause is a clause that contains a ________ verb.
fixed
A ______ expression is one whose form cannot be changed in any way.
Formal
________ styles are those in which words and structures are carefully chosen. Such styles are used in business letters, academic textbooks, news broadcasts, public ceremonies, etc.
Informal
__________ styles are those in which language is used spontaneously, as in everyday conversation.
gender
In some languages, each noun has a grammatical __________ (In French, for example). In English, nouns don't have a grammatical _________.
genitive (or possessive)
The __________ form of a noun ends with -'s or -s'.
genitive (or possessive)
_________ forms often express a relationship of possession, but they express a number of other relationships as well. For example, they are commonly used with time words.
genitive (or possessive)
We do not normally use the -'s/-s' __________ with inanimate nouns. Instead we tend to use the of-__________.
gradable
A _________ adjective is one that can be used with (very, too, etc). It also has comparative/superlative forms.
head
The ______ of a phrase is the word that is modified/qualified by all other words in the phrase.
imperative
The ___________ form of a verb is the same as the bare infinitive. __________ clauses begin with a verb in the __________. We use them for commands, suggestions, invitations, etc.
Indefinite pronouns
____________ ___________ are words that do not refer to a particular person or thing.
Direct
________ speech is speech that is written down without changing the words of the speaker. These words are usually enclosed within inverted commas.
Indirect (or reported)
_______ speech is speech that is speech that is reported in the words of the reporter.
infinitive (or present infinitive)
The ________ is the base form of a verb. The base form is used sometimes with 'to' and sometimes without 'to'.
to-infinitive
The form with 'to' is called a __-__________.
bare infinitive
The form without 'to' is called a __________ ________
infinitive
An _________ is a type of subordinate clause which begins with an _________.
infinitive
The __________ marker is 'to'. We use it to make a to-_________.
-ing
An ___ clause is a type of subordinate clause in which the first verb is an ____ form.
-ing
An ____ form is the form of a verb that ends in ____.
intensifier
An ________ is a type of adverb which 'strengthens' the meaning of the following word.
interrogative
An __________ clause is a clause that has the form of a question. Note, however that ________ clauses are not always questions: 'If you are going out, (would you post this letter for me?)' = a request.
Linking adverbs
_________ ________ are words such as 'therefore, however, moreover, nevertheless'. We use them to show the connection between what we are about to say and what we have just said.
linking verb
A _______ _____ (e.g. be, become, seem, look) links the subject with one or more words which describe the subject.
main (or independent) clause
A ______ ______ is a clause that may be used on its own as a sentence.
main (or lexical, or full) verb
A ____ ____ (e.g. lose, go, deliver, forget) is the last verb in a verb phrase. A ____ ____ is often preceded by auxiliary verbs (e.g. be, have, do, can, must, will).
middle (or mid) position
A _______ ______ adverb is an adverb that normally comes immediately before the main verb.
modal verb
A ______ _____ (e.g. can, could, may, might, will, should, must) is a type of auxiliary verb which expresses the speaker's attitude. It comes right at the beginning of a verb phrase.
modifier
In a phrase, a ____ is a (word) or (group of words) which make the meaning of the main word (the head) more specific.
nonfinite
A ________ is a form of the verb that does not show a distinction in tense and cannot stand alone as the main verb in a sentence.
noun
A _____ is a word that refers to a (person, place, thing, idea, etc). Most _____s can be used after a determiner.
noun phrase
A ______ ______ is a group of words in which the main word is a noun or pronoun. Basically the (noun + modifiers).
Number
"________" involves the contrast between words which are singular (e.g. this, boy, he) and words which are plural (e.g. these, boys, they). Two words are said to agree in number when they refer to the same thing and are both singular or both plural.
object (or direct object)
The ____ of a sentence is the person or thing that is affected by the action of the verb.
indirect object
An _________ ________ is normally the person or thing that receives the direct object. When someone (or something) gets the direct object, that word is the ________ ______.
participle clause
A _______ ________ is a type of subordinate clause which begins with a participle.
active
The subject of a clause is usually (the doer) of the action expressed by the verb: e.g. 'Alex has typed the letter.' In such cases, we say that the verb and the clause are ________.
passive
Sometimes the subject of a clause is (the receiver) of the action: e.g. 'The letter has been typed.' When this is the case, we say that the verb and the clause are _______.
Passive verb forms
____ ____ ____ are made with (be) + past participle. Since a passive clause begins with (the reciever) of the action, only transitive verbs (i.e. verbs which take an object) can be used in the passive.
past participle
The _____ _________ is the form of a verb that is used in perfect tenses (a), in passive structures (b), and in some non-finite clauses (c). They are also used as adjectives: 'an (excited) audience'.
past perfect
The _____ _______ tense has two forms: the simple past perfect (a) and the past perfect continuous (b). The simple form is usually intended when people talk about the _______ ________.
past perfect continuous
The ____ ____ ____ tense is made with (had) + (been) + (-ing).
simple past perfect
The ____ _____ _____ tense is made with (had) + (past participle).
past continuous
The ____ ______ tense is made with (was/were) + (-ing).
simple past
The ____ _____ tense of a regular verb ends in (-ed).
perfect infinitive
The _______ _________ is made with (to have) + (past participle).
past tense
The _____ _____ has two forms: the simple past (She laughed) and the past continuous (She was laughing). People usually refer to the simple past form.
Person
"___" involves the contrast between words which show that we are talking about ouselves (a), words which show that we are talking about the listener (b), and words which describe someone/something else (c).
personal pronouns
The ________ _________ are (I, me, you, he, she, him, etc).
phrasal verb
A _______ _____ is a verb which consists of two or three parts/particles and acts as an entire semantic unit.
phrase
A _______ is a group of words, one of which is the 'head' (the main word).
plural
A ____ form refers to two or more people or things.
plural count noun
A ______ _____ _____ is a countable noun that is used in the plural.
plural noun
A ______ _____ is a noun which is always plural and does not have a singular form.
possessive determiners
The __________ ___________ are: (my, your, his, her, its, our, their, whose).
possessive pronouns
The _________ ________ are: (mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs).
predicate
The __________ is the whole of a clause apart from the subject. In other words, the _________ is everything that we say about the subject.
preposition
A __________ is a word that comes at the beginning of a phrase telling us (when, where, why, how, etc). ___________s are also used as linking words.
prepositional phrase
A ____ ____ is a group of words which begins with a (preposition) and ends with a (noun or pronoun).
present participle
The __________ __________ is the (-ing) form of a verb. It is used in continuous tenses, in some non-finite clauses, and as an adjective.
present perfect
The ____ ____ tense has two forms: the simple present perfect (a) and the present perfect continuous (b). When people talk about 'the ____ ____', they normally mean the simple present perfect form.
present perfect continuous
The ____ ____ ____ tense is made with (have/has) + (been) + (-ing).
simple present perfect
The _______ ________ ________ tense is made with (have/has) + (past participle).
present continuous
The _______ ______ tense is made with (am/are/is) + (-ing).
simple present
With the exception of (be), the _________ _______ tense is the same as the base form of the verb. For third person subjects = (-s/-es suffixes).
present tense
The ________ _______ has two forms: the simple present (a) and the present continuous (b). When people talk about the _______ _____, they normally mean the simple present form.
continuous
Each tense has two forms a _________ (or progressive) form and a (simple) form. ___________ tenses are with (be) + (-ing).
Continuous
_________ tenses are used for actions and situations that are viewed by the speaker as incomplete or temporary.
Simple
__________ (or non-continuous) tenses are used for actions and situations that are viewed by the speaker as complete or permanent.
pronoun
A _________ is a word that is used in place of a (noun or noun phrase).
qualifier
In a phrase, a _________ is a word or group of words which comes after the main word (the head) and makes its meaning more specific.
quantifier
A _________ is a word or phrase which tells us (how many) or (how much).
question tag
A ________ ___ is a short question form that we sometimes add to the end of a statement.
grammatical (or real) subject
The ___________ _________ is the subject of the main verb.
rhetorical subject
The ___________ __________ is the subject of the main action described by the sentence.
subject
Clear, direct, and economical sentences should use the rhetorical ________ and the grammatical ________ as the only subject.
subject
The _________ is that which answers the question (who? or what?) placed before the predicate, and which at the same time names that of which the predicate says something.
reflexive pronouns
The ___________ _________ are (myself, himself, themselves, etc.)
reflexive verb
A __________ _____ is a verb that is used with a (reflexive pronoun).
regular
A _______ form is one which follows the normal rules. For example, to make the simple past tense of a verb, we normally add (ed/-d) to the base form: (kicked, jumped, danced).
irregular
An _______ form does not follow the normal rules. For example, the simple past tense of _________ verbs do not follow the normal rules: (went, did, gave, wrote).
relative adverbs
The _________ _________ (where, when, and why) are used at the beginning of a relative clause.
relative clause
A ____ ____ is a type of subordinate clause that begins with (who, that, which, etc).
relative clause
A defining _______ _____ tells us which person or thing the speaker is talking about.
non-defining relative clause
A ___-______ __________ ________ provides further information about someone or something.
relative pronoun
We use a ___________ _________ (e.g. who, which, that) at the beginning of a relative clause.
reported clause
A __________ ______ is a clause that is introduced by a reporting verb (e.g. say, tell, ask).
reporting verb
A _________ _____ is used to introduce indirect/reported speech.
sentence
A ________ is the largest grammatical unit, containing at least one main clause. It begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
singular
A _______ form refers to just one person or thing.
stative
A ________ verb (e.g. know, contain, own) refers to a state (not an action). For this reason, ________ verbs are not normally used in continuous tenses.
subject
The _________ of a sentence is the person or thing that the sentence is about.
subordinate (or dependent) clause
A __________ ______ provides part of a main (or independent) clause, telling us (why, when, where, how, what, etc). It may also provide part of a phrase: 'The person (that I feel sorry for) is his brother. It cannot be used on its own in a sentence.
subordinating conjunction
A ___________ ___________ is a word such as (because, if, when, although) which joins a subordinate clause to a main clause.
superlative
A ________ is the form of an adjective or adverb that ends in (-est) or that begins with (most/least).
syllable
A _______ is a part of a word (or sometimes a whole word) that is pronounced as one unit.
tense
A _____ is a form of the verb which indicates, for example, the time of an action, and whether it is complete or in progress.
that-clause
A ___-____ is a type of subordinate clause which begins - or which could begin - with the conjunction (that).
to-clause
A ___-______ is a type of subordinate clause that begins with a to-infinitive.
Transitive
__________ verbs (e.g. buy, find) take an object.
Intransitive
___________ verbs (e.g. laugh, come) do not take an object. Some verbs have both transitive and intransitive uses: 'He was reading (a book).
uncountable (or mass) noun
An ____ ____ is a noun that does not have a plural form (e.g. furniture, homework, advice, equipment, information).
unit noun
A ______ ______ is a noun that we use to talk about a particular quantity of something.
verb
A ____ is a word which refers to an action or state, and which can show tense.
verb phrase
A ______ _______ consists of a main verb (e.g. write, drink, think, go) preceded by one or more auxiliary verbs (e.g. be, have, do, can, must, will).
vowel
A ______ (or _____ sound) is a speech sound that is made without blocking the air from the lungs. For example, the sounds at the beginning of (egg, old, and artist are ______s).
wh-clause
A __-____ is a type of subordinate clause that begins with a wh-word.
wh-question
A __-_____ is a question that begins with a wh-word.
wh-word
A __-____ is a question word beginning with (wh-).
word classes (or parts of speech)
The term ____ ______ (_____) refers to the groups into which words are placed according to their grammatical functions.
yes/no question
A ____ _________ is a question form which invites a 'yes' or 'no' answer.
split infinitive
The ____ ____ is a construction in which one or more words come between the particle (to) and the verb
parallel structure (or parallelism)
Two or more words, phrases, or clauses that are similar in length and grammatical form.