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Art and Intellectual Movements IV

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Reason over emotion
Emotion and faith over reason
Realism (Approximate Time)
Belief that literature and art should depict life as it really was
Largely a reaction to the failed revolutions of 1848-49 and subsequent loss of idealism
Country that saw the development of the realist movement
Honore de Balzac
**Realist** The Human Comedy; depicts urban society as grasping, amoral, and brutal, characterized by a Darwinian struggle for wealth and power
Gustave Flaubert
**Realist** Madame Bovary; portrayed the middle class as petty, smug, and hypocritical
Emile Zola
**Realist** Germinal; portrayed seamy, animalistic view of working-class life
George Eliot
**Realist** examined ways in which people are shaped by their social classes as well as their own inner striving, conflicts, and moral choices
Thomas Hardy
**Realist** Tess of the d'Ubervilles; depicted a woman who was ostracized for having pre-marital sex
Leo Tolstoy
**Realist** War and Peace; Fatalistic view of history but regards love, trust, and everyday family ties as life's enduring values
Henrik Ibsen
**Realist** "Father of modern drama" examined the conditions of life and issues of morality, often at odds with the Victorian view of the day
Romanticism and Realism
Started to create art for "art's sake"
Ordinary people were the subject of paintings
Romanticism and Realism
Did not depend of patrons - instead they sold their paintings to the public
Gustave Courbet
**Realist** coined the term "realism"; painted "The Stone Breakers"
Francois Millet
**Realist** painted "The Gleaners", farm women gleaning the fields after a harvest
Honore Daumier
**Realist** painted "Third Class Carriage", which showed how the railroad made it possible for peasants to move or travel to cities
Edgar Degas
**Realist** painted "Laundry Girls Ironing", ordinary women performing unskilled labor
Edouard Manet
French realist and impressionist painted who bridged both movements. Painted "Le Dejeuner sur l'herbe" (LUncheon on the Grass)
Impressionism started in...
Was impacted by the advent of photography - artists now moved away from trying to perfectly capture an image
Painters sought to capture the momentary overall feeling, or impression, of light falling on a real-life scene before their eyes
focused on landscapes; paintings were completed quickly; brushstrokes were highly visible; advent of oil paints in tubes made outdoor painting possible
late 19th Century
Impressionism (approximate time)
Claude Monet
**Impressionist** painted "Impression Sunrise" in 1873; considered first Impressionist painting; known for his "series paintings"
**Impressionist** painted "Le Bal au Moulin de la Gelette"
Camille Pissarro
**Impressionist** considered by some to be the true father of impressionsim
Art movement that desired to know and depict worlds other than the visible world of fact
sought to portray worlds of emotion and imagination; cubism; nonrepresentational art focused on mood, not objects; fascination with form
Post-Impressionism (approximate time)
Vincent van Gogh
**Post-Impressionist** painted "The Starry Night", painted night how he imagined it; painted "Self portrait with a Bandaged Ear"
Paul Gauguin
**Post-Impressionist** pioneered expressionist techniques; saw form and design of a painting as important
Paul Cezanne
**Post-Impressionist** committed to form and ordered design; later works became extremely abstract and nonrepresentational
Henri Matisse
**Post-Impressionist** led an extreme group on paintings that were called (by Paris) "les fauves" - the wild beasts
Pablo Picasso
**Post-Impressionist** founded Cubsim in 1907; worked with Georges Braque in developing analytic cubism
founded by Pablo Picasso in 1907; Les Madamoselle d'Avignon is considered its first peace
concentrates on a complex geometry of zigzagging lines and sharply angled, overlapping planes
turned away from nature completely with non-figural paintings, colors were used to express emotion and symbolism but not any recognizable form
Wassily Kandinsky
founded Expressionism in 1910