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201 Fibers & Fabrics


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Fiber
Basic unit of textiles
Natural Fiber
Comes from plants and animals
Cellulosic
A natural fiber coming from plants
Protein
A natural fiber from coming from animals
Manufactured Fiber
Fibers made from petroleum, wood pulp, etc. Man-made
Abrasion Resistance
The ability of a fabric to resist surface wear caused by flat rubbing contact with another material.
Absorbancy
The capacity of a substance to soak up moisture
Durability
The ability to withstand wear, pressure, or damage
Elasticity
The ability to resume its norma shape after being stretched or compressed
Resiliency
The ability to spring back into shape; elasticity
Strength
The ability to be pulled and stretched without breaking
Wicking
The ability to draw moisture from your body
Plain Weave
The simplest weave in which the weft alternates over and under the warp
Twill weave
The strongest weave identified by its diagonal lines. The stagger at each row forms the diagonal pattern
Satin Weave
Weakest weave in which the weft/filling yarns float over the warp yarns creating a shine and luster finish
Weft Knit
A fabric produced in a machine or hand knitting with the yarns running crosswise or in a circle
Warp Knit
Method in which the yarn zigzags along the length of the fabric, following adjacent columns
Seamless Knit
When knitting circularly, the knit is cast on and the circle of stitches is joined. No seams in garments.
Nonwovens
When fibers are melted or fused together to make disposable/inexpensive fabrics
Weave
Interlacing long threads passing in one direction with others at a right angle to them.
Knit
Interlocking loops
Warp Yarns
Run the length of the fabric. Attached to the loom. Lengthwise grain
Weft/Filling Yarns
The yarns that create the pattern. The over/under yarns. Crosswise Grain
Bias
Diagonal Grain
Blend
When 2 or more fibers are mixed together in yarns to make fabric. The marriage of good/bad characteristics of fibers
Dyeing
The process of coloring yarns, fibers, or fabrics.
Fiber Dyeing
Adding color to fiber.
Yarn Dyeing
Color is added to threads before they are woven or knitted into fabric (as opposed to the color/pattern being printed onto the fabric).
Piece Dyeing
Dyeing that occurs after a fabric is made, but before it is assembled into a garment.
Printing
The process of transferring color onto a fabric to form a pattern.
Roller Printing
Method of applying color/pattern to fabric by using metal rollers.
Screen Printing
Forcing ink onto fabric through a prepared screen to create a pattern.