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Level 5

Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications

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error recovery flow control
The OSI transport layer (Layer 4) defines several functions, the most important of which are __ and __.
retransmission avoid congestion
TCP provides __ (error recovery) and helps to __ (flow control), whereas UDP does not.
__ needs fewer bytes in its header, resulting in fewer bytes of overhead in the network.
__ software does not slow down data transfer in cases where __ can purposefully slow down.
Voice over IP Video over IP
Some applications, notably today __ and __, do not need error recovery, so they use UDP.
Multiplexing using ports
Function that allows receiving hosts to choose the correct application for which the data is destined, based on the port number.
Error recovery
Process of numbering and acknowledging data with Sequence and Acknowledgment header fields.
Flow control using windowing
Process that uses window sizes to protect buffer space and routing devices from being overloaded with traffic.
Connection establishment and termination
Process used to initialize port numbers and Sequence and Acknowledgment fields.
Ordered data transfer and data segmentation
Continuous stream of bytes from an upper-layer process that is “segmented” for transmission and delivered to upper-layer processes at the receiving device, with the bytes in the same order.
bandwidth processing cycles
TCP provides error recovery, but to do so, it consumes more __ and uses more __.
RFC 793
TCP, as defined in __, accomplishes the functions listed in Table 5-1 through mechanisms at the endpoint computers.
TCP relies on __ for end-to-end delivery of the data, including routing issues.
TCP segment
The message created by TCP that begins with the TCP header, followed by any application data, is called a __.
The computer might be running many applications, such as a web browser, an email package, or an Internet VoIP application. TCP and UDP __ tells the receiving computer to which application to give the received data.
port number
Each of Hannah’s TCP and UDP segments uses a different destination __ so that Jessie knows which application to give the data to.
Multiplexing, based on __, ensures that the data is delivered to the correct applications.
IP address, transport protocol, port number
A socket consists of three things:
For a web server application on Jessie, the __ would be (, TCP, port 80) because, by default, web servers use the well-known port 80.
dynamic port numbers well-known applications
Hosts typically allocate __ starting at 1024 because the ports below 1024 are reserved for __.
socket connections
Hannah and Jessie use three applications at the same time—hence, three __ are open.
Port numbers
__ are a vital part of the socket concept.
servers clients
Well-known port numbers are used by __; other port numbers are used by __.
well-known port
Applications that provide a service, such as FTP, Telnet, and web servers, open a socket using a __ and listen for connection requests.
World Wide Web
The __ application exists through web browsers accessing the content available on web servers.
Domain Name System
The __ allows users to use names to refer to computers, with ** being used to find the corresponding IP addresses.
DNS also uses a __ model, with DNS servers being controlled by networking personnel and DNS client functions being part of most any device that uses TCP/IP today.
Simple Network Management Protocol
__ is an application layer protocol used specifically for network device management.
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Traditionally, to move files to and from a router or switch, Cisco used __.
__ and __, both used for transferring mail, require guaranteed delivery, so they use __.
FTP data
20 TCP
22 TCP
23 TCP
25 TCP
67 68 UDP
69 UDP
80 TCP
110 TCP
161 UDP
443 TCP
connection establishment
TCP __ occurs before any of the other TCP features can begin their work.
Connection establishment
__ refers to the process of initializing sequence and acknowledgment fields and agreeing on the port numbers used.
three-way handshake
This three-way connection establishment flow (also called a __) must complete before data transfer can begin.
port numbers
The only parts of the socket that need to be encoded in the TCP header are the __.
TCP signals connection establishment using 2 bits inside the flag fields of the TCP header. Called the __ and __ flags.
synchronize the sequence numbers
SYN means “__,” which is one necessary component in initialization for TCP.
FIN bit
This four-way termination sequence is straightforward and uses an additional flag, called the __.
establishes terminates
TCP __ and __ connections between the endpoints, whereas UDP does not.
A protocol that requires an exchange of messages before data transfer begins, or that has a required preestablished correlation between two endpoints.
A protocol that does not require an exchange of messages and that does not require a preestablished correlation between two endpoints.
__ is connectionless and provides no reliability, no windowing, no reordering of the received data, and no segmentation of large chunks of data into the right size for transmission.
lost data
Applications that use UDP are tolerant of the __, or they have some application mechanism to recover **.
DNS requests use __ because the user will retry an operation if the DNS resolution fails.
Network File System
The __, a remote file system application, performs recovery with application layer code, so UDP features are acceptable to it.
8 bytes 20-byte
The UDP has only __, in comparison to the __ TCP header. UDP needs a shorter header than TCP simply because UDP has less work to do.
The whole goal of building an enterprise network, or connecting a small home or office network to the Internet, is to use __.
__ in general defines the quality of the data transfer between two applications and in the network as a whole.
The volume of bits per second needed for the application to work well; it can be biased with more volume in one direction, or balanced.
The amount of time it takes one IP packet to flow from sender to receiver.
The variation in delay.
The percentage of packets discarded by the network before they reach the destination, which when using TCP, requires a retransmission.
1970s 1980s
TCP/IP networks began in the __ and __ with data applications only, with no widely used voice and video applications.
__ data applications usually have a human user at one end of a flow, and the IP packets must flow in both directions for meaningful work to happen.
IP telephony
Sending voice traffic as bits inside an IP packet is generally called Voice over IP (VoIP), while the use of telephones that connect to LANs is called __.
delay jitter loss
The QoS requirements for video are similar to those for voice. Like voice, two-way video applications, like videoconferencing, require low __, low __, and low __.
routers switches
To support the QoS requirements of the various applications, __ and __ can be configured with a wide variety of QoS tools.
World Wide Web
The __ consists of all the Internet-connected web servers in the world, plus all Internet-connected hosts with web browsers.
Web servers
__, which consist of web server software running on a computer, store information that might be useful to different people.
Web browsers
__, which is software installed on an end user’s computer, provide the means to connect to a web server and display the web pages stored on the web server.
web clients
Although most people use the term web browser, or simply browser, web browsers are also called __, because they obtain a service from a web server.
These clickable items on a web page, which in turn bring you to another web page, are called __.
Uniform Resource Locator
The browser user can identify a web page when you click something on a web page or when you enter a __ (often called a web address) in the browser’s address area.
The client sends a DNS request to the DNS server. Typically, the client learns the DNS server’s IP address through __.
web page
After a web client (browser) has created a TCP connection to a web server, the client can begin requesting the __ from the server.
HTTP GET request
To get a file from a web server, the client sends an __ to the server, listing the filename.
HTTP GET response
If the server decides to send the file, the server sends an __, with a return code of 200 (meaning “OK”), along with the file’s contents.
404 file not found
Many return codes exist for HTTP requests. For example, when the server does not have the requested file, it issues a return code of __, which means “__.”
Web pages typically consist of multiple files, called __.