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The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models


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enterprise network
The Information Technology world refers to a network created by one corporation, or enterprise, for the purpose of allowing its employees to communicate, as an __.
small office home office
The smaller networks at home, when used for business purposes, often go by the name __ networks.
networking model
A generic term referring to any set of protocols and standards collected into a comprehensive grouping that, when followed by the devices in a network, allows all the devices to communicate.
networking architecture networking blueprint
A networking model, sometimes also called either a __ or __, refers to a comprehensive set of documents. Individually, each document describes one small function required for a network.
TCP/IP
Today, the world of computer networking uses one networking model: __
Systems Network Architecture
IBM published its __ networking model in 1974.
standardize data networking protocols
ISO had a noble goal for the OSI model: to __ to allow communication between all computers across the entire planet.
1990s
During the __, companies began adding OSI, TCP/IP, or both to their enterprise networks.
OSI TCP/IP
The __ model, whose development suffered in part because of a slower formal standardization process as compared with __ never succeeded in the marketplace.
Request for Comments
The TCP/IP model both defines and references a large collection of protocols that allow computers to communicate. To define a protocol, TCP/IP uses documents called __.
TCP/IP
The Ethernet card, or wireless LAN card, built into the computer implements some LAN standards referenced by the __ model.
layers
To help people understand a networking model, each model breaks the functions into a small number of categories called __.
protocols
Each layer includes __ and standards that relate to that category of functions.
RFC 1122
The original TCP/IP model listed in __, which breaks TCP/IP into four layers.
applications
The top two layers focus more on the __ that need to send and receive data.
data link physical
The TCP/IP model refer to the layers formed by expanding the original model’s link layer into two separate layers: __ and __.
network access network interface
The original TCP/IP model’s link layer has also been referred to as the __ and __ layer.
Application
These are some example protocols of __ layer: HTTP, POP3. SMTP
Transport
These are some example protocols of __ layer: TCP, UDP
Internet
This is an example protocol of __ layer: IP
Link
These are some example protocols of __ layer: Ethernet, PPP, T1
application
TCP/IP __ layer protocols provide services to the application software running on a computer.
services
The application layer does not define the application itself, but it defines __ that applications need.
application
In short, the __ layer provides an interface between software running on a computer and the network itself.
web browser
Arguably, the most popular TCP/IP application today is the __.
home page
Imagine that Bob opens his browser. His browser has been configured to automatically ask for web server Larry’s default web page, or __.
HyperText Transfer Protocol
To make the request for a web page and return the contents of the web page, the applications use the __.
Tim Berners-Lee 1990s
HTTP did not exist until __ created the first web browser and web server in the early __.
Uniform Resource Locator
The full version of most web addresses—also called __ begins with the letters “http,” which means that HTTP is used to transfer the web pages.
HTTP header
To get the web page from Larry(Server), at Step 1, Bob(Client) sends a message with an __.
headers
Generally, protocols use __ as a place to put information used by that protocol.
get
The HTTP header includes the request to “__” a file.
HTTP 404 “not found”
If you ever looked for a web page that was not found, and then received an __ error, you received an HTTP return code of 404.)
Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol
The two most commonly used transport layer protocols are the __ and the __.
Transport
__ layer protocols provide services to the application layer protocols that reside one layer higher in the TCP/IP model.
error-recovery
Each layer provides a service to the layer above it, like the __ service provided to application layer protocols by TCP.
error-recovery
TCP/IP needs a mechanism to guarantee delivery of data across a network. Because many application layer protocols probably want a way to guarantee delivery of data across a network, the creators of TCP included an __ feature.
acknowledgments
To recover from errors, TCP uses the concept of __.
TCP
The __ header shows a sequence number (SEQ) with each message.
adjacent-layer interaction
The general topic of how on one computer, two adjacent layers in a networking architectural model work together, with the lower layer providing services to the higher layer.
same-layer interaction
The communication between two networking devices for the purposes of the functions defined at a particular layer of a networking model, with that communication happening by using a header defined by that layer of the model.
headers
When a particular layer on one computer wants to communicate with the same layer on another computer, the two computers use __ to hold the information that they want to communicate.
TCP IP
In fact, the name TCP/IP is simply the names of the two most common protocols (__ and __).
IP
__ provides several features, most importantly, addressing and routing.
application transport
The TCP/IP __ and __ layers act like the person sending letters through the postal service.
lower layers
The __ of the TCP/IP model act more like the postal service to deliver those messages to the correct destinations.
Internet Protocol
The network layer of the TCP/IP networking model, primarily defined by the __, works much like the postal service.
IP address unique
IP defines that each host computer should have a different __, just as the postal service defines addressing that allows __ addresses for each house, apartment, and business.
routers forwarding packets
IP defines the process of routing so that devices called __ can work like the post office, __ of data so that they are delivered to the correct destinations.
four periods
Each IP address has __ numbers, separated by __.
dotted-decimal notation
Larry uses IP address 1.1.1.1, and Bob uses 2.2.2.2. This style of number is called a __.
network
The Modern TCP/IP __ layer, using the IP protocol, provides a service of forwarding IP packets from one device to another.
IP host
The term __ refers to any device, regardless of size or power, that has an IP address and connects to any TCP/IP network.
source IP address destination IP address
The IP header includes a __ of Larry’s IP address (1.1.1.1) and a __ of Bob’s IP address (2.2.2.2).
link
The TCP/IP model’s original __ layer defines the protocols and hardware required to deliver data across some physical network.
link
The term __ refers to the physical connections, or links, between two devices and the protocols used to control those links.
link-layer
When a host’s or router’s IP process chooses to send an IP packet to another router or host, that host or router then uses __ details to send that packet to the next host/router.
Ethernet
The __ network, which implements link-layer protocols, must then be used to deliver that packet from host Larry over to router R1.
frame
Larry encapsulates the IP packet between an Ethernet header and Ethernet trailer, creating an Ethernet __.
headers trailers
Protocols define both __ and __ for the same general reason, but __ exist at the beginning of the message and __ exist at the end.
wide area network
The link layer includes __ standards for different physical media, which differ significantly compared to LAN standards because of the longer distances involved in transmitting the data.
encapsulation
The placement of data from a higher-layer protocol behind the header of the next-lower-layer protocol.
encapsulation physical transmission
The process by which a TCP/IP host sends data can be viewed as a five-step process. The first four steps relate to the __ performed by the four TCP/IP layers, and the last step is the actual __ of the data by the host.
application
The __ layer often does not need to add a header or trailer.
segment
In TCP, a term used to describe a TCP header and its encapsulated data (also called an L4PDU).
packet
A logical grouping of bytes that includes the network layer header and encapsulated data, but specifically does not include any headers and trailers below the network layer.
frame
A term referring to a data link header and trailer, plus the data encapsulated between the header and trailer.
transport network link
Each term, however, refers to a different TCP/IP layer: segment for the __ layer, packet for the __ layer, and frame for the __ layer.
network
TCP/IP’s original internet layer, as implemented mainly by IP, equates most directly to the OSI __ layer.
All People Seem To Need Data Processing
Mnemonic phrase to make memorization for OSI Layers (7 to 1)
Please Do Not Take Sausage Pizzas Away
Mnemonic phrase to make memorization for OSI Layers (1 to 7)
services
To provide the __, each layer makes use of a header and possibly a trailer.
lower higher
The __ layer encapsulates the __ layer’s data behind a header.
Protocol Data Unit
A __ represents the bits that include the headers and trailers for that layer, as well as the encapsulated data.
Layer x PDU
So, rather than use the terms segment, packet, or frame, OSI simply refers to the “__”, with “x” referring to the number of the layer being discussed.