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How web search engines work

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Search engine results page (SERP)
the listing of results returned by a search engine in response to a keyword query.
Web crawler
an Internet bot which systematically browses the World Wide Web, typically for the purpose of Web indexing.
Search engine indexing
collects, parses, and stores data to facilitate fast and accurate information retrieval.
Web Search query
a query that a user enters into a web search engine to satisfy his or her information needs.
Robots.txt, Robots Exclusion standard
a standard used by websites to communicate with web crawlers and other web robots. The standard specifies how to inform the web robot about which areas of the website should not be processed or scanned
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it
Sitemap, Robots Inclusion standard
allows a webmaster to inform search engines about URLs on a website that are available for crawling
Email address harvesting
the process of obtaining lists of email addresses using various methods for use in bulk email or other purposes usually grouped as spam.
an automated computer program designed to assist in the sending of spam
any software used to disrupt computer operation, gather sensitive information, or gain access to private computer systems