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History of Programming


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Charles Babbage
an English polymath. A mathematician, philosopher, inventor and mechanical engineer, Babbage is best remembered for originating the concept of a programmable computer.
Polymath
a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems
Punched card
a piece of stiff paper that contained either commands for controlling automated machinery or data for data processing applications
Ada Lovelace
a British mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine.
Von Neumann architecture
a computer architecture based on that described in 1945 by the mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and others
Assembly language
a low-level programming language for a computer, or other programmable device, in which there is a very strong (generally one-to-one) correspondence between the language and the architecture's machine code instructions
Low-level programming language
a programming language that provides little or no abstraction from a computer's instruction set architecture—commands or functions in the language map closely to processor instructions
Machine code
a set of instructions executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU)
Fortran
a general-purpose, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. Originally developed by IBM in the 1950s
High-Level Programming Language
Is used to write programs and looks like English but cannot be understood by the computer
Abstraction
a technique for managing complexity of computer systems. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level
COBOL
a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use. It is imperative, procedural and, since 2002, object-oriented
ActionScript
an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (now dissolved into Adobe Systems)
C
a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations
C++
a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation.