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[Quiz] Introduction II


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discrete
a digital signal is this, meaning the voltage changes dramatically between one extreme to the other
computer architecture
this term describes how the hardware components of a computer are put together
peripherals
almost all devices in a computer system other than the CPU and main memory are these
controllers
devices that send information back and forth from the CPU and main memory to the peripherals
data transfer devices
a kind of peripherals, these allow information to be sent and received between computers
modem
a data transfer device that lets information be sent across a telephone line
bar code readers
Input devices that we use at the grocery store checkout
joysticks devices
Input devices often used for games and advanced graphical applications
microphones
Input devices used by voice recognition systems that interpret simple voice commands
virtual reality devices
Input devices such as gloves that interpret the movement of the user's hand
scanners
Input devices which convert text, photographs, and graphics into machine-readable form
plotters
Output devices which move pens across large sheets of paper
speakers
Output devices used for audio output
goggles
Output devices used for virtual reality display
pixels
small pieces that a picture is broken up into
memory locations
small and connected, main memory is made up of these
storage capacity
the total number of bytes a device such as main memory can hold
megabyte (MB)
1,024 kilobytes
gigabyte (GB)
1,024 megabytes
terabyte (TB)
1,024 gigabytes
volatile
means that the information stored will be lost if its electric power supply is turned off
magnetic tapes
used as a secondary storage but are slower than disks because of the way information is accessed
direct access device
the read/write head can move, in general, to the information needed with this device, for example a disk
direct access
the ability to go to the information needed
sequential access device
an example is a tape that must be rewound or fast-forwarded to get to the right place
random access memory (RAM)
a direct/random access device where data can be both written to it it and read from it
read-only memory (ROM)
a direct/random access device where stored information cannot be changed
CD-ROM
a portable secondary memory device; has smooth areas and small pits (0's and 1's)
CD-Recordable (CD-R)
a type of drive that can be used to create a CD for music or for general computer storage
CD-Rewritable (CD-RW)
a disc that can be erased and reused
DVD
has a tighter format (more bits per square inch) than a CD so it can store much more information; used for videos
control unit
component of the CPU; handles the processing steps
registers
component of the CPU; small amounts of storage space in the CPU itself
arithmetic/logic unit
component of the CPU; does calculations and makes decisions
instruction register
holds the current instruction being executed
program counter
holds the address of the next instruction to be executed
von Neumann architecture
the idea of storing both program instructions and data together in main memory
fetch-decode-execute
a cycle that the von Neumann architecture computers follow
microprocessor
a chip that is a part of the main circuit board of the computer
system clock
a clock that sends out an electronic pulse at regular intervals, so that everything going on in the CPU happens on the schedule; a part of the main circuit board
clock speed
the rate at which the pulses occur in a CPU
network
Advantage: Performance: Storing and runnng procedures on the server minimizes _______ traffic.
file server
stores programs and data that are needed by many network users
point-to-point connection
when two computers are close to each other it is this type of connection