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Level 79

Introduction to Computer Science & Programming


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Hardware
All of the physical devices that collectively constitute the item we think of as a desktop or a laptop computer
Software
a collection of computer programs that tell the computer how to perform a particular task
Program
A __________ virus infects program executable files.
processor/CPU/central processing unit/chip
Device inside a computer that follows a program's instructions
Memory
a component on the motherboard that stores data electronically
auxiliary memory
The various kinds of disks that are used with computers.
Main Memory/RAM
Primary storage area for programs/data in active use
bit
A binary number 0 or 1
Byte
2^3 bits=
Address
a unique binary representation of a location in memory
memory location
Adjacent bytes. The address of the first byte is used as the address for this.
files
Larger units of auxiliary memory.
directories/folders
Groups of files.
data
Business __________ theft involves stealing proprietary business INFORMATION such as research for a new drug or a list of customers that competitors are eager to acquire.
running/executing
Following the instructions in the program.
Operating System
...The master controller on a computer; it manages the computers memory, processing, software and hardware
high-level languages
Programming languages that are designed for people to use.
low-level languages
Programming languages that a computer can (more directly) understand.
Compiler
A language which translates high-level languages into low-level languages which a computer can process. Needed for any third-generation language and beyond.
compile
To translate from a high-level program to a low-level one.
machine languages/assembly languages
Low-level languages produced by compilers.
source program/source code
The input program.
object program/object code
The translated low-level-language program that the compiler produces.