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Level 78

Introduction to Computers, Programs, & Python


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Program
A __________ virus infects program executable files.
Hardware
All of the physical devices that collectively constitute the item we think of as a desktop or a laptop computer
Software
a collection of computer programs that tell the computer how to perform a particular task
Bus
A set of circuits that connect the CPU to other components
motherboard
a circuit board that contains all of the computer system's main components.
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
A small silicon semiconductor chip with millions of transistors that executes instructions
bit
A binary number 0 or 1
Byte
2^3 bits=
encoding scheme
An encoding scheme is a set of rules that govern how a computer translates characters, numbers, and symbols into data the computer can actually work with. Most schemes translate each character into a predetermined string of numbers.
Memory
a component on the motherboard that stores data electronically
storage devices
The permanent storage for data and programs. Memory is volatile, because information is lost when the power is off. Program and data are stored on secondary storage and moved to memory when the computer actually uses them.
screen resolution
Specifies the number of pixels in horizontal and vertical dimensions of the display device
pixel
picture cell, a single dot in an image
dot pitch
The amount of space between pixels. The smaller the dot pitch, the better the display.
Modem
A communication device that converts one form of a signal to another.
Digital subscriber line (DSL)
Uses a phone line and can transfer data in a speed 20 times faster than a regular modem
cable modem
Uses the TV cable line maintained by the cable company. A cable modem is as fast as a DSL.
network interface card (NIC)
A device to connect a computer to a local area network (LAN). The LAN is commonly used in business, universities, and government organizations. A typical type of NIC, called 10BaseT, can transfer data at 10 Mbps.
Machine Language
Binary programming language that is specific to a computer. A computer can execute a program only after the program's source code is translated to object code expressed in the computer's machine language
assembly language
A low-level programming language in which a mnemonic is used to represent each of the machine language instructions.
assembler
A software used to translate assemblylanguage programs into machine code
low-level language
Assembly language is referred to as a low-level language, because assembly language is close in nature to machine language and is machine dependent.
high-level language
Are English-like and easy to learn and program.
Statement
A syntactical unit in a program
source code
A program written in a programming language such as Java
interpreter
An interpreter reads one statement from the source code, translates it to the machine code or virtual machine code, and then executes it right away
Compiler
A language which translates high-level languages into low-level languages which a computer can process. Needed for any third-generation language and beyond.
Operating System
...The master controller on a computer; it manages the computers memory, processing, software and hardware
console
refers to text entry and display device of a computer
FUNCTION
A named set of instructions that can be called over and over again
source file
A file that stores the source code
script file
Source file
comment
Comments document what a program is and how it is constructed. They are not programming statements and are ignored by the compiler.
runtime errors
Errors that cause the program to terminate abnormally.
logic error
An error caused by a statement that is syntactically correct, but produces unexpected or undesired results. Also called a semantic error.