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DSST Intro to Basic Computing

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__________ is a software program that delivers advertising content in a manner that is unexpected and unwanted by the user.
A special method for solving a specific kind of problem
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
A measure for the speed (amount of data) you can send through an Internet connection. The more __________, the faster the connection
Use of physical attributes like fingerprints, voices, eyes or faces to confirm identity.
Everything that happens between the time the computer is turned on, performs the operations necessary to get all components functioning, and the operating system loaded
2^3 bits=
A single "box" in a spreadsheet. Rows are horizontal, columns are vertical, ranges are clusters, and values are dates entered into cells.
a high level programming language that was designed by Grace Murray Hopper
A language which translates high-level languages into low-level languages which a computer can process. Needed for any third-generation language and beyond.
Data Representation
The format in which data is stored, processed and transmitted.
The newest and most popular RAM chip. Other types of memory chips include ROM, CMOS, and Flash memory.
device driver
A program stored on the hard drive that tells the computer how to communicate with an input/output device such as a printer or modem.
Direct Implementation
A step in the Software Life Cycle. User stops using old system and immediately begins with the new. Other types include parallel (both systems used until new is deemed reliable), phased (parts are used gradual…
domain name
A __________ is a worldwide-unique name that is affiliated with a public IP address.
A common local area network standard for hardware communication and cabling
(computing) a security system consisting of a combination of hardware and software that limits the exposure of a computer or computer network to attack from crackers
An interface that allows different types of networks to communicate.
HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is the network protocol used to deliver virtually all files and other data across the Internet.
Machine Language
Binary programming language that is specific to a computer. A computer can execute a program only after the program's source code is translated to object code expressed in the computer's machine language
Any kind of harmful computer program, including viruses, Trojan Horses, browser hijackers, key loggers, Denial-of Service attacks and worms.
an entire CPU on a single chip
A step in program design. One develops and tests each sub-program or sub-routine separately.
A device connected to at least one other device on a network
A method in which data and processing instructions are combined into objects, modules of programming code that can be used in other programs.
Open Source
Proprietary software that includes source codes, so programmers can modify and improve it. Do not confuse this with public domain software, which is available to the public with no restrictions.
Operating System
...The master controller on a computer; it manages the computers memory, processing, software and hardware
A network where all workstations connect with each other without depending on the server.
The usual method of electronic data transfer across a network.
A network of devices typically within a small radius that enables a user to use two or more devices wirelessly, such as wireless keyboard and mouse
A set of rules that govern the exchange of data between hardware and software components.
A text-based design notation using ordinary language to define a problem
A class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in this cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distri…
A __________ forwards packets across computer networks.
Second Generation
Assembly languages, which are a set of abbreviations to use in place of binary code.
Software Life Cycle
The steps taken by an organization when analyzing and designing a system. Typically, they include analysis, design, development, implementation and maintenance.
Software that enables users to enter numerical data and formulas into rows and columns.
__________ is the standard language for inserting, updating, and deleting data in a database
Static memory chip, the only one which is not dynamic: it does not need to be refreshed by the CPU to retain its contents.
A full-duplex device that connects computers to a network.
Third Generation
Procedural languages that allow the programmers to write in human language rather than abbreviations and numbers. Includes programs like FORTRAN, COBOL and Java.
The arrangement of a network. Most have a central hub from which information is broadcast.
A location or address identifying where documents can be found on the Internet; a Web address
user interface
controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
Programs that help users monitor and configure the settings for computer hardware, application software, and the operating system. Includes setup wizards and antivirus software.
Vacuum Tubes
One of the first components of the digital computer, later replaced by transistors and integrated circuits.
Wireless Fidelity
An Ethernet-compatible network that transmits data as radio waves.
DOS predates windows, and was a command line only operating system. DOS Has no GUI interface.
A symbol, name, or key that represents a list of commands, actions, or keystrokes. CTRL 'C' would be an example of a macro (Keyboard shortcuts as well).
A computer network confined to a building or a group of adjacent buildings, as opposed to a wide area network
First programmable computer
Z3 is legally the first programmable computer, however some tests may claim the Colossus, due to legal suits deciding if the Z3 was a valid computer.
Toplevel Domain
A top-level domain (TLD) is the final identifier in a domain name. For example, in the domain name www.example.com, the top-level domain is com
Tape Reals
A form of mass storage used in the mid 60-70's. Tape reals are highly unefficient and obsolete with today's technology.
Floppy Disk / Floppy Drive
Floppy disks/drives are small mass storage device that have been all but replace by hard drives in modern computers, Floppy Disks hold about 1.44 MB, verses an average hard drive that holds 750 GB.
Expert System
A piece of software programmed using artificial intelligence techniques. Such systems use databases of expert knowledge to offer advice or make decisions in such areas as medical diagnosis and trading on the stock exchange.