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Level 65

What is Computational Thinking


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abacus
An instrument used to perform calculations by sliding rings or beads along rods inside a frame.
Analog
Continuous format in which we represent information as data
Analytical Engine
A proposed general-purpose, programmable and mechanical computing machine
Charles Babbage
Developed the design for the Analytic Engine to perform any mathematical operation
Code
A word that can be used in place of software or program
Computer
A programmable machine designed to carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations
Computer Science
The study of the principles and use of computing systems
Computer System
A collection of computer hardware and software
Computation
The act of mathematical calculations
digital
An electronic signal (electrical pulse) used to transmit information in the form of binary digits.
ENIAC
First large scale electronic calculating machine. Initially used to calculate ballistics
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
A way to interact with a computer using windows, images, icons, and other graphical represntations
Hardware
All of the physical devices that collectively constitute the item we think of as a desktop or a laptop computer
High-Level Programming Language
Level of abstraction closer to problem domain. Provides for productivity and portability
Herman Hollerith
Developed a machine to calculate the census much faster than previous methods. His company became IBM
Jacquard Loom
First programmable device to create patterns in fabric
Ada Lovelace
First programmer
Machine Instruction
Particular instructions computer processors respond to
Modern Computer
Electronic, digital, and employs the stored program concept
Moore's Law
A prediction that manufacturing capabilities would advance so that the number of components within an integrated circuit would roughly double every 18 months
Blaise Pascal
Developed one of the first mechanical calculators
Program
A __________ virus infects program executable files.
data
Business __________ theft involves stealing proprietary business INFORMATION such as research for a new drug or a list of customers that competitors are eager to acquire.
Punch Cards
Card with holes to represent data
Representation (The information being represented)
Occurs anytime the data from one system is intended to model something else
Software (A collection of data and instructions)
Consists of the instructions and data that computer hardware executes to perform the desired tasks
Stored Program Concept
Computer architecture that includes storage for programs and data, a processing unit, input and output
user interface
controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
Konrad Zuse
German engineer who developed some of the first programmable computers. After WWII, his company was a successful computer manufacturer.
George Boole
Developed the logic system we use to build all computing devices
Alan Turing (Developed the Universal Turing Machine concepts and the Turing Test)
Father of modern computing. He helped develop the computing systems and algorithms to decipher German messages which helped the Allies win the war.
Enigma
Electro-Mechanical cipher machine used by the Germans
Colossus
Electronic code breaking computer that broke the codes provided by Engima
Universal Turing Machine (Can simulate any other Turing Machine Program)
Model of computation that allows a program to be specified by a series of inputs that produce outputs.
(Harvard) Mark I
Electro-mechanical computer used toward the end of WWII
Howard Aiken
Developed the Mark I which was used to develop America's atomic bomb
Grace Hopper
Coined the term "computer bug" after finding a moth that had died in a computer causing problems with the computation. Developed the first compiler. One of the creators of COBOL, on of the first succes…
Brian Kernighan and Dennis Ritchie
Developers of the C programming language and UNIX operating system. The language (C) was created to help them write operating system software, including UNIX
Guido von Rossum
Creator of the Python programming language. Python is designed to be an easy language to learns and express complex programs in relatively few lines of code
Alan Kay
Computer visionary who designed some of the precursors of mobile computing device. Created the idea of object-oriented programming which helps programmers express complex programs more easily.
Compiler
A language which translates high-level languages into low-level languages which a computer can process. Needed for any third-generation language and beyond.
Operating System
...The master controller on a computer; it manages the computers memory, processing, software and hardware
Bjarne Stroustrup
Creator of the C++ programming language. C++ is an improvement on C that includes features that support object-oriented programming
assembly language
A low-level programming language in which a mnemonic is used to represent each of the machine language instructions.
Programming Language
Human read-able way of communication with a computer. The language defines the syntax and the semantics that can then be used by a programmer to construct programs
Magnetic Tape
Data storage technology that uses thing strips of magnetized tape to store data. Developed in the 1950's and still used today in large-scale and long-term data storage applications
DVD (Holds more data than a CD)
Popular in the 1990's and 2000's. Removable data storage device that uses optics to read and write data
Cloud Storage
The concept of storing data on servers owned and managed by another company. Geographically distributed serves and replication strategies provide good reliability of data storage
Floppy Disk
Popular in the 1970's, 1980's, and 1990's. Removable storage device that uses magnetic storage technology
Electo-Mechanical device that stores large amounts of data.
Hard Disk Drive (HDD - larger capacity, slower, and cheaper than SSD)
Solid State Drive (SSD - smaller capacity, faster, and more expensive than HDD)
Flash memory based storage device that stores large amounts of data. No moving parts.
USB Drives
Flash memory based removable storage device that is convenient for transporting files
Steve Jobs
Co-founder of Apple and computer visionary credited with helping to design the iPod, iPhone, and iPad. Also a founder of Next and Pixar
Bill Gates
Co-founder of Microsoft, which is best known for producing the Windows operating system, and a well-known Philanthropist
Windows
A widely-used operating system that became popular with the rise of the IBM PC and various clones
Mouse
A physical device for navigating a GUI
IBM PC and Clones
IBM developed a popular personal computer product and the architecture and software were copied by other manufacturers. This made personal computing even more popular.
Linus Torvalds
Chief architect of the Linux kernel, champion of open-source software. Believed in the open-source software philosophy
Steve Wosniak
Engineer and co-founder of Apple. Designed the Apple I and Apple II computers
linux
is free... used within home and small businsess.
Internet
A global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information.
World Wide Web
a collection of electronic files linked together
Web Browser
A software program used to display web pages
Protocol
A set of rules that govern the exchange of data between hardware and software components.
Tim Berners-Lee
Inventor of the World Wide Web
Google
An online search engine used to research and look up various search terms.
Netscape (Firefox is a descendant of Netscape)
One of the first widely used, graphical web browsers.
search engine
a computer program on the internet that searches for information
ARPANET
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
A commercial organization that maintains a dedicated Internet connection and provides access to paying customers.
Larry Page and Sergey Brin
Founders of Google. Created the search engine because they had new ideas for a clean search interface and way to search the internet
Floating Point Operations Per Second (FLOPS)
Measure of computing power. The fastest machines in the world perform at 10s of PetaFLOPS
Seymour Cray
Wisconsin native, engineer and founder of (insert last name) supercomputer company. Some of the top machines in the world his branded computers
IBM's Watson
Supercomputer designed to win the game show Jeopardy! Now being used to investigate medical problems
Beowulf Cluster
Local network of commodity computers that work together as a larger virtual computer
IBM's Roadrunner
First PetaFLOP system. Designed to simulate the US nuclear stockpile, and other large science problems
DNA Computing
The concept of using DNA to store data for computing. DNA is far more dense and consumes less power than current memory technologies
Quantum Computing
atomic particles represent the values 0 and 1
Nanoscale Superconductors
Technology that may be used to build even faster computer chips
Artificial Intelligence
The area of computer science that studies and develops systems that can learn and adapt to new information
Open-Source Software Philosophy
Belief that software should be free to use and free to modify at will, which will create a community of developers who make the collective software better for all
John Backus
Creator of the FORTRAN programming language. One of the first high-level languages. FORTRAN is designed for scientific computing and is widely used on supercomputers by scientific applications