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Introduction to Computing DSST


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shareware
Copyrighted software that is distributed at no cost for a trial period
Utilities
Programs that help users monitor and configure the settings for computer hardware, application software, and the operating system. Includes setup wizards and antivirus software.
microprocessor
an entire CPU on a single chip
DDR-SDRAM
The newest and most popular RAM chip. Other types of memory chips include ROM, CMOS, and Flash memory.
ROM
A class of storage medium used in computers and other electronic devices. Data stored in this cannot be modified, or can be modified only slowly or with difficulty, so it is mainly used to distri…
Booting
Everything that happens between the time the computer is turned on, performs the operations necessary to get all components functioning, and the operating system loaded
device driver
A program stored on the hard drive that tells the computer how to communicate with an input/output device such as a printer or modem.
Spreadsheets
Software that enables users to enter numerical data and formulas into rows and columns.
SQL
__________ is the standard language for inserting, updating, and deleting data in a database
Pseudocode
A text-based design notation using ordinary language to define a problem
COBOL
a high level programming language that was designed by Grace Murray Hopper
ARPANET
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
Node
A device connected to at least one other device on a network
Protocol
A set of rules that govern the exchange of data between hardware and software components.
HTTP
HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is the network protocol used to deliver virtually all files and other data across the Internet.
Spoofing
Forging the name of an e-mail sender.
Adware
__________ is a software program that delivers advertising content in a manner that is unexpected and unwanted by the user.
Cracker
A malicious hacker.
Biometrics
Use of physical attributes like fingerprints, voices, eyes or faces to confirm identity.
P2P
A network where all workstations connect with each other without depending on the server.
Ethernet
A common local area network standard for hardware communication and cabling
Wireless Fidelity
An Ethernet-compatible network that transmits data as radio waves.
URL
A location or address identifying where documents can be found on the Internet; a Web address
Third Generation
Procedural languages that allow the programmers to write in human language rather than abbreviations and numbers. Includes programs like FORTRAN, COBOL and Java.
Fourth Generation
Problem-oriented languages that allow programmers to write programs with fewer commands, includes SQL and NOMAD.
Fifth Generation
Natural languages that allow programmers to phrase questions and commands in conversational ways, and are associated with artificial intelligence. Prolog and Mercury are two examples.
OOP
A method in which data and processing instructions are combined into objects, modules of programming code that can be used in other programs.
Machine Language
Binary programming language that is specific to a computer. A computer can execute a program only after the program's source code is translated to object code expressed in the computer's machine language
Compiler
A language which translates high-level languages into low-level languages which a computer can process. Needed for any third-generation language and beyond.
Second Generation
Assembly languages, which are a set of abbreviations to use in place of binary code.
Switch
A full-duplex device that connects computers to a network.
Gateway
An interface that allows different types of networks to communicate.
Groupware
Free software intended for collective use, a type of productivity software.
Malware
Any kind of harmful computer program, including viruses, Trojan Horses, browser hijackers, key loggers, Denial-of Service attacks and worms.
Algorithm
A special method for solving a specific kind of problem
Byte
2^3 bits=
PAN
A network of devices typically within a small radius that enables a user to use two or more devices wirelessly, such as wireless keyboard and mouse
router
A __________ forwards packets across computer networks.
Packet-Switching
The usual method of electronic data transfer across a network.
Software Life Cycle
The steps taken by an organization when analyzing and designing a system. Typically, they include analysis, design, development, implementation and maintenance.
SRAM
Static memory chip, the only one which is not dynamic: it does not need to be refreshed by the CPU to retain its contents.
Vacuum Tubes
One of the first components of the digital computer, later replaced by transistors and integrated circuits.
Data Representation
The format in which data is stored, processed and transmitted.
Phishing
An attack that sends an email or displays a Web announcement that falsely claims to be from a legitimate enterprise in an attempt to trick the user into surrendering private information
Pharming
An online scam that attacks the browser's address bar. Users type in what they think is a valid website address and are unknowingly redirected to an illegitimate site that steals their personal information.
Firewall
(computing) a security system consisting of a combination of hardware and software that limits the exposure of a computer or computer network to attack from crackers
domain name
A __________ is a worldwide-unique name that is affiliated with a public IP address.
Topology
The arrangement of a network. Most have a central hub from which information is broadcast.
Bandwidth
A measure for the speed (amount of data) you can send through an Internet connection. The more __________, the faster the connection
Modularization
A step in program design. One develops and tests each sub-program or sub-routine separately.
Direct Implementation
A step in the Software Life Cycle. User stops using old system and immediately begins with the new. Other types include parallel (both systems used until new is deemed reliable), phased (parts are used gradual…
Open Source
Proprietary software that includes source codes, so programmers can modify and improve it. Do not confuse this with public domain software, which is available to the public with no restrictions.
Cell
A single "box" in a spreadsheet. Rows are horizontal, columns are vertical, ranges are clusters, and values are dates entered into cells.
user interface
controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
Operating System
...The master controller on a computer; it manages the computers memory, processing, software and hardware