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Level 51

Enhancing Business Processes Using Enterprise Info


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Order-to-cash process
The processes associated with selling a product or service
Procure-to-pay process
The processes associated with procuring goods from external vendors
Make-to-stock process
The processes associated with producing goods based on demand forecasts
Make-to-order process
The processes associated with producing goods based on sales orders
Core activities
The activities within a value chain that process inputs and produce outputs, including inbound logistics, operations and manufacturing, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service
Support activities
Business activities that enable the primary activities to take place. Support activities include administrative activities, infrastructure, human resources, technology development, and procurement
Value system
A collection of interlocking company value chains
Upstreaming information flow
An information flow consisting of information received from another organization, such as from a supplier
Downstream information flow
Information flow that relates to the information that is produced by a company and sent along to another organization, such as a distributor
Stand-alone applications
A system that focuses on the specific needs of an individual department and is not designed to communicate with other systems in the organization
Legacy systems
Older stand-alone computer systems within an organization with older versions of applications that are either fast approaching or beyond the end of their useful life within the organization
Enterprise-wide information system
An information system that spans the entire organization and can be used to integrate business processes, activities, and information across all functional areas of a firm
Internally focused system
Information system that supports functional areas, business processes, and decision making within an organization
Externally focused system
An information system that coordinates business activities with customers, suppliers, business partners, and others who operate outside an organization's boundaries
Interorganizational system (IOS)
An information system that communicates across organizational boundaries
Packaged software
Software programs written by a third-party vendor for the needs of many different users and organizations
Custom software
Software programs that are designed and developed for a company's specific needs as opposed to being bought off the shelf
Modules
Component of a software application that can be selected and implemented as needed
Vanilla version
The features and modules that a packaged software system comes with out of the box
Customization
Modifying software so that it better suits user needs
Business Process Management (BPM)
A management technique that includes methods and tools to support the design, analysis, implementation, management, and optimization of business processes
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
An information system that integrates business activities across departmental boundaries, including planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing, etc
ERP core components
The components of an ERP that support the internal activities of an organization for producing products and services. Financial, operations, and human resources management
ERP extended components
The components of an ERP that support the primary external activities of an organization for dealing with suppliers and customers. Customer relationship manement and supply chain mangement
Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
A software architecture in which business processes are broken down into which business processes are broken down into individual components (or services) that are designed to achieve the desired results for the service consumer (w…
Inbound logistics activities
Receiving and stocking raw materials, parts, and products. Part of the procure-to-pay process
Operations and manufacturing activities
Transforming the inputs into outputs. Part of the make-to-stock/make-to-order processes
Outbound logistics activities
Distributing the end products. Part of the order-to-cash process
Marketing and sales activities
Presales of the company: creation of marketing literature, communication with potential and exisiting cusomters, and pricing of goods and services
Customer service activities
Postsales of the company: customer questions, customer service
Administrative activities
The processes and decision making to orchestrate day-to-day operations of an organization
Infrastructure activities
Provides the necessary components to facilitate the order entry process
Human resource activities
Employee management: Hiring, interview scheduling, payroll, and benfits management
Technology development activities
The design and development of applications that support the primary business activities
Procurement activities
Purchasing of goods and services that are required as inputs to the primary activities