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Level 47

Introduction to Information Systems


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browsers
Software applications through which users primarily access the Web
chat room
A virtual meeting place where groups of regulars
clients
Computers, such as users' personal computers, that
coaxial cable
Insulated copper wire; used to carry high-speed
industrywide portal
A Web-based gateway to information
mobile portal
A portal that aggregates and provides content and services for mobile users.
Modem
A communication device that converts one form of a signal to another.
packet switching
The transmission technology that breaks up
virtual group (team)
A work group whose members are in
Protocol
A set of rules that govern the exchange of data between hardware and software components.
search engine
a computer program on the internet that searches for information
servers
A computer that provides access to various network
twisted-pair wire
A communications medium consisting of
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
A Web stie address that Web brosers recoanize
Web site
A collection of related web pages.
Information
Data converted into a meaningful and useful context
Information System is...
... an organized system that collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose.
information technology components
Hardware, software, databases, and networks.
information technology infrastructure
IT components plus IT services.
information technology platform
Formed by the IT components of hardware, software, networks (wireline and wireless), and databases.
Make-To-Order
A strategy of producing customized products and services
Mass Customization
A company produces a large quantity of items, but it customizes them to fit the needs and preferences of individual customers
Electronic Commerce
The process of buying, selling, transferring, or exchanging products, services, or information via computer networks
Competitive Strategy
A statement that identifies a business's approach to compete, its goals, and the plans and policies that will be required to carry out those goals
Strategic Information Systems (SIS)
Provide a competitive advantage by helping an organization implement its goals and improve its performance and productivity
Competitive Forces Model
The best-known framework for analyzing competitiveness
Entry Barrier
Product or service feature that customers expect from organizations in a certain industry; an organization trying to enter this market must provide this product or service at a minimum to be able to compete
Intermediation Role
A link between buyers and sellers
Switching costs
expenses incurred when customer stops buying from one company and starts buying from another
Value Chain
A sequence of activities through which the organization's inputs are transformed into more valuable outputs
Value Chain Model
Identifies points where an organization can use information technology to achieve competitive advantage
Primary Activities
The production and distribution of the firm's products and services
Support activities
Business activities that enable the primary activities to take place. Support activities include administrative activities, infrastructure, human resources, technology development, and procurement
Value system
A collection of interlocking company value chains
Five Primary Activities
Inbound Logistics (inputs)
Business Environment
The combination of social, legal, economic, physical, and political factors in which businesses conduct their operations
Business-Information Technology Alignment
The tight integration of the IT function with the strategy, mission, and goals of the organization
business process
A __________ is a network of activities, repositories, roles, resources, and data flows that interact to accomplish a business function.
Business process Improvement (BPI)
A methodology for achieving incremental improvements in the effectiveness and efficiency of a process
Business Process Management (BPM)
A management technique that includes methods and tools to support the design, analysis, implementation, management, and optimization of business processes
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
A radical redesign of a business process that improves its efficiency and effectiveness, often by beginning with a "clean sheet"
Competitive Advantage
A point of difference or superiority held over one's competitors
Cross-Functional Business Process
A process in which no single functional area is responsible for its completion
Digital Divide
The gap between those who have access to information and communications technology and those who do not
Globalization
Drivers Behind the Use of BIS (2-4,5)
Six Sigma
A methodology for continuous BPI on reducing defects in process outputs by using statistical methods
Organizational social responsibility
Efforts by organizations to solve various social problems
Inputs, Resources, Outputs
3 Elements of a business process
Process Level, Instance Level
2 levels where evaluations occur
Control
The systems component that evaluates feedback to determine whether the system is moving toward the achievement of its goal and then makes any necessary adjustments to the input and processing components of the sy…
Efficiency
A measure of how well an organisation uses resources to achieve objectives
Effectiveness
Focuses on doing the things that matter
Cost Leadership Strategy
Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost in the industry
Differentiation Strategy
Offer different products, services, or product features
Innovation Strategy
Introduce new products and services, put new features in existing products and services, or develop new ways to produce them
Operational effectiveness strategy
Improve the manner in which internal business processes are executed so that a firm performs similar activities better than its rivals
Customer-orientation strategy
Concentrate on making customers happy
Porter's Five Competitive Forces
The threat of entry of new competitors, the bargaining power of suppliers, the bargaining power of customers, the threat of substitute products or services, the rivalry among existing firms in the industry