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Level 41

Management Information Systems


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Synergy
1+1=3 - The attainment of output, when two factors work together, that is greater or better than the sum of their products when they work separately
data
Business __________ theft involves stealing proprietary business INFORMATION such as research for a new drug or a list of customers that competitors are eager to acquire.
Information
Data converted into a meaningful and useful context
Closed System
A system that stands alone, with no connection to another system
Open System
A system that interfaces and interacts with other systems
Transaction
a business event, usually entered as input
System Analyst
An IT professional who analyzes business problems and recommends technological situations
Database Administrator (DBA)
creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security of the database, monitors the performance of the database, and checks backup and recovery procedures
Efficiency
A measure of how well an organisation uses resources to achieve objectives
Effectiveness
Focuses on doing the things that matter
Productivity
A measure of the functioning and efficiency of a production system and relates to the level of output obtained from a set level of inputs.
Brainstorming
a decision-making approach that consists of members offering ideas "off the top of their heads" fostering creativity and free thinking
Time to Market
The time between generating an idea for a product and completing a prototype that can be mass-manufactured
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)
Technology that enables identification of an object (such as product, vehicle, or living creature) by receiving a radio signal from a tag attached to the object
Strategic Advantage
A position in which one dominates a market - also called competitive advantage
Competitive Advantage
A point of difference or superiority held over one's competitors
Reduce Cost
A way to increase market share is to lower prices
Raise Barriers to Entrants
Obtaining legal protection of intellectual property such as an invention or artistic work bars competitors from freely using it
Differentiation
Persuading consumers that its product or service is better than its competitors, even if its not, usually achieved through advertising
Enhancing Existing Products/Services
Instead of differentiating a product or service, an organization might actually add to the product or service to increase its value to the customer
Alliances
Companies can gain competitive advantage by combining serves to make them more attractive than purchasing services separately
Lock In Suppliers/Buyers
Organizations can achieve competitive advantage if they are powerful enough to "lock in" either suppliers to their mode of operation or buyers to their product
Reengineering
ELIMINATING AND REBUILDING OPERATIONS FROM THE GROUND UP; often involves new machinery and elimination of management layers; frequently involves information technology
Late Mover
An organization that adopts a technology or method after competitors have adopted it
Switching Cost
Expenses that are incurred when customer stops buying a product or serviced from one business and starts buying it from another
Software
a collection of computer programs that tell the computer how to perform a particular task
Machine Language
Binary programming language that is specific to a computer. A computer can execute a program only after the program's source code is translated to object code expressed in the computer's machine language
Debugging
The process of finding and correcting errors in a program
Applets
A small software application, usually written in Java or another programming language for the web
Object Code
Program code in machine language, immediately processable by the computer
source code
A program written in a programming language such as Java
Driver
Computer program designed to convert data output from one device to a format compatible with another device
Proprietary Software
Software owned by an individual or organizations. The owner can control licensing and usage terms of the software. Nonproprietary software is not owned by anyone is free for use
RAID
Redundant array of independent disks
bit
A binary number 0 or 1
Byte
2^3 bits=
Technology Convergence
The combining of several technologies into a single device, such as mobile phone, digital camera and web browser
MICR
A technology that allows a special electronic device to read data printed with magnetic ink. The data are later processed by a computer. MICR is widely used in banking. The bank code, account number…
Sequential Storage
A file organization for sequential record entry and retrieval. The records are organized as a list that follows a logical order, such as ascending order of ID numbers, or descending order of part number…
Direct Access
The manner in which a record is retrieved from a storage device, without the need to seek it sequentially. The record's address is calculated from the value in its logical key field
Create New Products for Services
Gives an organization a great competitive advantage
KB (kilobyte)
1,000 bytes
MB (megabyte)
1,000,000 bytes
GB (gigabyte)
1,000,000,000 bytes
TB (terabyte)
1,000,000,000,000 bytes
PB (petabyte)
1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
EB (exabyte)
1,000,000,000,000,000,000 bytes
LAN
A computer network confined to a building or a group of adjacent buildings, as opposed to a wide area network
TCP/IP
A packet-switching protocol that is actually a set of related protocols that can guarantee packets are delivered in the correct oder and can handle differences in transmission and reception rates
Bandwidth
A measure for the speed (amount of data) you can send through an Internet connection. The more __________, the faster the connection
Broadband
A high-speed Internet connection such as cable, satellite, or digital subscriber line (DSL).
Node
A device connected to at least one other device on a network
MAN
Usually links multiple LANs within a large city or metropolitan region and typically spans a distance of up to 30 miles
WAN
A legwork of computers and other communications devices that extends over a large area, possibly comprising national territories
VAN
A telecommunications network owned and managed by a vendor that charges clients periodic feed for network management services
PAN
A network of devices typically within a small radius that enables a user to use two or more devices wirelessly, such as wireless keyboard and mouse
Switch
A full-duplex device that connects computers to a network.
Modem
A communication device that converts one form of a signal to another.
Protocol
A set of rules that govern the exchange of data between hardware and software components.
Host
A computer that contains files and other resources that can be accessed by "clients" computers linked to it via a network
Dynamic IP Address
The IP number assigned to a computer that is connected to the Internet intermittently for the duration of the computer's connection
Static IP Address
An Internet protocol number permanently associated with a device
Bluetooth
A personal wireless network protocol. IT enables wireless communication between input devices and computers and among other devices within 10 meters
Upstream
The movement of data from your computer to another computer via a network, usually the Internet. Upstream speed through the services of Internet providers is typically lower than the downstream speed
Downstream
The movement of data bits from another computer to your computer via the Internet. Downstream speed of Internet connection services is usually greater than the upstream speed
VOIP
Rules for how voice and sound files are streamed over a packet switching network