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Level 39

Transaction Processing Systems


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Transaction Processing System
Are information systems that process transactions which occur within an organisation. They collect, store, modify and retrieve records of transactions.
Transaction
a business event, usually entered as input
Backup
Copying files to a seperate secondary storage as a precaution in case the main device is lost, damaged or fails.
Recovery
A planning move where the customer preserves the completion date of a release by reducing the scope of the release in response to increased estimates or decreased team speed.
Full backup
Charlie is worried about something happening to his data. He uses it all the time in his business and if something were to happen to it, he might lose his business. He has com…
Incremental Backup
Making a backup of files which have been changed or created since the last backup (either full or incremental).
Differential Backup
Copies of all files that have changed or been created since the last full backup.
Transaction Logs
Contains historical data of each transaction performed, and is used in case one or more steps fail, as a method to return data back to its original state.
Rollback
If a transaction fails, it requires data to be left at a state before the failed transaction began.
Mirroring
RAID devices used to store transaction logs, making a complete duplicate copy.
Grandfather, Father, Son
A commonly used backup rotation method, using a number of tapes over the span of a day/week/month/year.
Bias Data Collection
An inclination/preference towards an outcome. This unfairly influences outputs/outcomes. It typically occurs when establishing the system, when deciding what data to collect and when collecting data.
Firewalls
Provides protection from outside penetration by hackers. It monitors the transfer of information to and from the network.
Data Encryption
Data is encrypted in such a way that it is unreadable by those who do not posses the decryption code.
Data Validation
Checks, at the time of data collection, to ensure the data is reasonable and meets certain criteria.
Data Verfication
Regular checks to ensure the data collected and stored matches and continues to match the source of the data.
Referential integrity
a consistent state among foreign key and primary key values
ACID Properties
Ensures transactions are never incomplete (atomicity), the data is never inconsistent (consistency), transactions of not affect each other (isolation) and that the results of a completed transaction are permanent (durability)
Normalising
Reduces/eliminates duplicate data within individual relational databases, however when transactions span multiple databases, issues will arise. Requires the use of unique identifiers.
Data Warehouse
A large data base with historical copies of data from each organisation's operational data base. They are typically static and read only - a snapshot of a database at one point in time.
management information system
a computer system that supports managers by providing information, reports, schedules, plans, and budgets that can be used for making decisions
Decision Support System
An interactive, flexible computerized information system that enables managers to obtain and manipulate information as they are making decisions
Online Analytical Processing
Type of decision support system, which uses different levels and dimensions of data to uncover a relationship or trend.
Data Mining
__________ is the application of statistical techniques to find patterns and relationships among data for classification and prediction.
Data Marts
Recognised summary of specific data from a data warehouse, or transaction database. It aims to meet the specific needs to retrieve information, and assist in decision making.
Enterprise Systems
Large organisations/government departments/universities use this system to perform processes central to their overall operation.
Data Integrity
Correctness and accuracy of data during transactions.
Manual Transaction Processing System
Follows a strict sequence of events, with strict rules followed throughout the transaction process. They do not use machines. Rather, physical pen and paper files are recorded and stored.
Automated Transaction Processing System
Has a non-linear structure. This means that steps can, and often are, conducted in different orders. Each transaction is different from the next. It requires the use of information technology (hardware and software).
Participants
People who carry out information processes, and interact directly with the TPS.
Real Time Processing
When a transaction in performed immediately in response to user/participant input.
BATCH PROCESSING
Accumulating transaction records into groups or batches for processing at a regular interval such as daily or weekly. The records are usually sorted into some sequence (such as numerically or alphabetically) before processing.
Transaction Processing Monitor
Software application which coordinates the transactions of large systems. It covers many database servers, has a restore manager, and ensures the integrity of transaction data.