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Software Requirements


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Elements of a business process model
flow objects, connecting objects, swim lanes, and artifacts
What's a link among development artifacts?
Requirements Traceability directly traces to a feature requirement which directly traces to a stakeholders requirement. So ultimately a stakeholders requirement indirectly traces to a usecase requirement.
What's a requirements baseline
The requirements that the development team has committed to implement in a specific release
What's a trace suspect?
Automatically set when a change is made indicate requirements that need to be reviewed. Only Direct traceability relationships become suspect.
Interviewing - Advantages
Engaging with Stakeholders, Dialogue & Feedback, Follow-Up
Interviewing- Disadvantages
Only know what they know, One hand clapping , Unresolved Conflicting
Four Types of Models Most Useful in requirements interviews
Stakeholders Maps, Onion Models, Goal Models, Rich Pictures, Flowcharts
Observation
Planned sessions in which you watch, listen & learn & see the situation up close & personal
Apprenticeship
Act as a beginning apprentice-learning task from the stakeholder to learn a good way of getting to understand the look & feel
Meeting
Ad hoc with no planning or structure to address an immediate issue, may involve presentations made by specialistsor by managers.
Workshop Mission
A suitable mission for a requirements workshop can be almost anything on a projet that needs the skilled involvement of stakeholders & requirements specialists. To define the goals for the product, create scenario for…
Brainstorming
a decision-making approach that consists of members offering ideas "off the top of their heads" fostering creativity and free thinking
Examples of Group Media for workshops
Project Wall, Project website, project wikis
Project Wall
Primarily used in an agile environment in which teams meet in a single physical area that has a wall in order for everyone to post shared info. Increases communication & Makes management easier, ca…
Project Website
Best for sharing updates on the project internally such as the standard procedures, templates, this may only be a read only notice board everyone is not actively updating the website. No collaboration
Project Wiki
Allows a team to describe a projects requirements design & anything essential to the success of the project . Topi
Project
A planned undertaking that has a beginning and an end and that produces a desired result or product.
Stakeholder
a person, group, organization, member or system who affects or can be affected by an organization's actions
Project stakeholder
a person, group or organization with an interest in a project
Solution
A means of solving a problem or dealing with a difficult situation
Scope
boundaries of something
Iron Triangle
scope, schedule, cost (choose two)
Problem
A matter or situation regarded as unwelcome or harmful and needing to be dealt with and overcome
Opportunity
Something that doesn't exist
Functional objectives
behavioral that the system should support
Walkthrough or technical review
Peer group review of any technical product
Verification
are we building the model right?
Validation
4th step of requirements gathering
Object Interaction Diagram
Either a collaboration diagram or a sequence diagram. Shows the interactions between objects
Sequence Diagram
Diagram showing the sequence of messages between objects during a single use case
Collaboration Diagram
Shows interaction organized around the objects and their messages to each other. Cannot show creation/deletion.
relationship
A blank within the data in a relational database.
attribute
A characteristic of an entity or object. An attribute has a name and a data type.
Actor
role played by an external user of the system
Aggregation (diamond)
relationship between classes that indicates more than one type of object make up a class, has-a relationship
Alternate flow
describes how error cases, exceptions and unusual situations will be handled by the use case
Use Case Diagram
a set of scenarios that describes an interaction between a user and a system.
Business Rules
documents any business policies that affect the execution of a use case
Pre-condition
documents any condition that must be satisfied before the use case can begin
Activation lifeline
vertical narrow rectangle to emphasize that an object is only active during part of a scenario for a sequence diagram
Association
A relationship that describes if a class "knows" or holds a reference to another class. "uses-a".
Multiplicity
number of associations between objects
Basic flow
main scenario, simple/correct path, no errors by actor
Context diagram
shows data flows in and out of the system
Developmental prototype
Used by RAD approach; refined with each lifecycle iteration; eventually becomes the actual system
Discovery prototype
Used in Analysis; validation tool
encapsulation
Bob holds data (e.g. birth date) and methods that work with the data (e.g. calculate age)
Generalization/specialization (triangle)
hierarchical relationship between classes indicating that super-classes are more generalized than sub-classes, is-a relationship
Implementation classes
classes in a class diagram needed for physical implementation, such as user interface classes
Includes
A type of relationship that is created between use cases when a collection of functionality is used by several other use cases, encourages re-use
Invariant
a condition which is maintained throughout the use case
Lifeline
Vertical line below an object in a sequence diagram that indicates the time during which the object is alive.
Messages
communication between objects in an object interaction diagram
Multiple inheritance
allows an object to be in a subclass of two or more different classes
Post-condition
states how the world has changed because of the execution of the use case
Scenario
The sequence of actions required in a use case
State
a value of some condition that occurs during an object's life
Sub-flow
several distinct cases in use case
use case
description of possible sequences of interactions between a user and the system.
class diagram
A diagram used to represent data and their relationships in UML object notation.
CRC cards
Class-Relationship-collaboration cards
Composition (black diamond)
stronger form of aggregation, part cannot exist without whole
methods
Bob can eat sleep drink dream talk calculate his age
Standard method
basic things all objects know how to do (CRUD, getters, setters)
Custom method
apply only to objects belonging to specific class
constraints
Limitations within which an IT system must work.
Events
occurrences at specific time, trigger system processing
Event table
analysis technique assisting in drawing context diagram and defining use cases
External event
outside system initiated by external agent
Temporal event
occurs as result of reaching point in time and system deadlines
State event
something inside system triggers need for processing
Trigger
how system knows event occurred
Activity
process system will perform
Response
what system creates from activity/trigger
Source
The origin of the PDU. This can be a process, a host, or a node. This depends on the layer to which you are referring to.
Destination
who gets response from event
Dataflow diagram
technique for modeling essential functions and data of system
Data flows
indicates interactions between system and environment, data not action, label with noun phrase (no verbs)
Context diagram to event table
source and destination = externals; trigger = inflow; response = outflow
Unified Modeling Language (UML)
A language based on object-oriented concepts that provides tools such as diagrams and symbols to graphically model a system.
stimulus-response model
Black box representation
Prototype
a preliminary working model showing some aspect of a larger system
Human-computer interaction (HCI)
refer to study of end users and interaction with computers
Composite state
nested internal states
Concurrent threads
swimlane notation, synchronization pseudostate
State transition diagram
final piece of information needed for describing functional requirements, identifies what states object can be in and what messages change the object's state