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Level 17

Information & Data Management


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artificial intelligence (AI)
The application of human intelligence to computers.
Backup
Copying files to a seperate secondary storage as a precaution in case the main device is lost, damaged or fails.
Character
A data type used for storing a single alphabetic or numeric character
column
Term used by users of relational databases for field.
Content Management System (CMS)
enables and manages the publishing, modification, organization, and access of various forms of documents and other files, including media and webpages, on a network of the web
continuous backup
A backup plan in which changes are backed up as they are made.
data dictionary
A DBMS element that contains data about each file in a database and each field in those files. See also repository.
data file
A collection of related records stored on a storage medium such as a hard drive or optical disc.
data model
A representation, usually graphic, of a complex real-world data structure. Data models are used in the database design phase of the Database Life Cycle.
Data type
Describes type of attribute. Data types are decided by the software or DBMS.
Data Warehouse
A large data base with historical copies of data from each organisation's operational data base. They are typically static and read only - a snapshot of a database at one point in time.
database
A collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data.
Database Administrator (DBA)
creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security of the database, monitors the performance of the database, and checks backup and recovery procedures
Database Analyst (DA)
decides on proper placement of fields, defines data relationship, and identifies user's access privileges
Database Management System (DBMS)
a software program that lets you create databases and then manipulate data in them
Database Software
A collection of information organized in such a way that a computer program can quickly select desired pieces of data. You can think of a database as an electronic filing system.
Decision Support System
An interactive, flexible computerized information system that enables managers to obtain and manipulate information as they are making decisions
document management system (DMS)
System that allows for storage and management of a company's documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
An information system that integrates business activities across departmental boundaries, including planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing, etc
Expert System
A piece of software programmed using artificial intelligence techniques. Such systems use databases of expert knowledge to offer advice or make decisions in such areas as medical diagnosis and trading on the stock exchange.
Field
A column in a table.
field name
Name that uniquely identifies each field in a database.
file maintenance
Procedures that keep data current.
file processing system
System used to store and manage data in which each department or area within an organization has its own set of files.
form
A window on the screen that provides areas for entering or modifying data in a database.
Information System
A set of people, procedures, and resources that collects, transforms, and disseminates information in an organization. A system that accepts data resources as input and processes them into information products as output.
log
A listing of activities that modify the contents of the database.
Management Information System (MIS)
A management support system that produces pre-specified reports, displays, and responses on a periodic, exception, demand, or push reporting basis.
object
A database item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data.
object-oriented database (OODB)
A database that stores data in objects.
primary key
A field that uniquely identifies each record in a file.
Query
a method of viewing, changing, combining, or analyzing data.
query by example (QBE)
DBMS feature that has a graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data.
Query Language
consists of simple, English-like statements that allow users to specify the data to display, print, store, update or delete
Record
A collection of fields that appear as a row in a database or table.
recovery utility
Tool that uses logs and/or backups, and either a roll forward or a rollback technique, to restore a database when it becomes damaged or destroyed.
relational database
A database that stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns.
relationship
A blank within the data in a relational database.
Report Writer
allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report
Row
one horizontal group of data attribute values
Structured Query Language (SQL)
A query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data in a relational DBMS.
Table
A database view of information arranged in a grid of rows and columns
Transaction Processing System (TPS)
a system that records transactions and processes transactions
Validation
4th step of requirements gathering
data
Business __________ theft involves stealing proprietary business INFORMATION such as research for a new drug or a list of customers that competitors are eager to acquire.
Information
Data converted into a meaningful and useful context
Data Integrity
Correctness and accuracy of data during transactions.
Data Hierarchy (Figure 11-2)
Data is organized in LAYERS
DBMS
provides several tools that allow users and programs to retrieve and maintain data in the database
many DBM's include QUERY BY EXAMPLE (QBE)
a feature that has graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data
Multidimensional Database
can store data in more than two dimensions of data
Database Analysts
and administrators are responsible for managing and coordinating all database activities
Information System (Table 11-3)
is a set of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce, provide access, and manage information
Document Management Systems (DMS)
allows for storage and management of a company's documents, such as word processing, documents, presentations, and spreadsheets
(Figure 11-19)
Transaction Processing System (TPS)
(Figure 11-20)
Management Information System (MIS)
Decision support system (DSS)
A computer-based system that helps decision makers confront problems through direct interaction with databases and analytical software programs