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What is a Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?
a structured step-by-step approach for developing information systems
What are the steps within the SDLC referred to as?
A waterfall methodology -- a sequential, activity-based process in which one phase of the SDLC is followed by another, from planning through implementation
In the planning phase of the SDLC, what is a Critical Success Factor (CSF)?
a factor critical to your organization's success. Organizations typically track all the proposed systems and prioritize them based on business impact or CSFs.
Define Project Scope as part of the planning phase of the SDLC.
This clearly defines the high-level requirements. A project scope document is a written document of the project scope and is usually no longer than a paragraph. Very important as helps avoid scope creep and feature creep.
What is scope creep?
Occurs when the scope of the project increases beyond its original intentions.
What is feature creep?
Occurs when developers (and end users) add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements.
What is a Project Plan as part of the planning phase in the SDLC?
This defines the what, when, and who questions of systems development including all activities to be performed, the individuals, or resources, who will perform the activities, and the time required to complete each activity. …
Who is the Project Manager in the planning phase of the SDLC?
This is an individual who is an expert in project planning and management, defines and develops the project plan, and tracks the plan to ensure that all key project milestones are completed on time.
What are Project Milestones in the SDLC's project plan?
These represent key dates by which you need a certain group of activities performed.
What is the Analysis Phase of the SDLC?
This involves end users and IT specialists working together to gather, understand, and document the business requirements for the proposed system.
What are Business Requirements in the Analysis Phase of a SDLC?
The detailed set of end-user requests that the system must meet to be successful. These drive the entire system. Must talk to everyone who has a claim in using the new system to find…
What is a Joint Application Development (JAD) in the Analysis Phase of a SDLC?
During this session users and IT specialists meet, sometimes for several days, to define and review the business requirements for the system.
What is a Requirements Definition Document?
This is a formal comprehensive document that contains all of the business requirements, prioritized in order of business importance.
What is sign-off as it relates to a Requirements Definition Document?
This is the users' actual signatures indicating they approve all the business requirements. Typically, this is one of the first major milestones in the project plan.
What is the primary goal of the Design Phase of a SDLC?
It is to build a technical blueprint of how the proposed system will work. Here, the project team turns its attention to the system from a physical or technical point of view. In this ph…
What is technical architecture during the Design Phase of a SDLC?
This defines the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment required to run the system.
What happens during the Development Phase of the SDLC?
During this phase, you take all your detailed design documents from the design phase and transform them into an actual system. This is where you go from physical design to physical implementation. IT specialists respons…
What happens during the Testing Phase of the SDLC?
This phase verifies that the system works and meets all the business requirements defined in the analysis phase.
What happens during the Implementation Phase of the SDLC?
During this phase, you distribute the system to all the users and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs.
Describe Parallel Implementation.
This uses both the old and new systems until you're sure that the new system performs correctly.
Describe Plunge implementation.
This discards the old system completely and immediately uses the new system.
Describe Pilot implementation.
This has only a small group of people using the new system until you know it works correctly and then the remaining people are added to the system.
Describe Phased implementation.
This installs the new system in phases (e.g., accounts receivable, then accounts payable) until you're sure it works correctly and then the remaining phases of the new system are implemented.
Describe the Maintenance Phase during the SDLC.
This is the final phase and you monitor and support the new system to ensure it continues to meet the business goals. Once a system is in place, it must change as your business chan…
Describe Component-based development (CBD) as a general approach to systems development.
This focuses on building small self-contained blocks of code (components) that can be reused across a variety of applications within an organization.
How does rapid application development (RAD) (also called rapid prototyping) methodology work?
This methodology emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate the systems development process.
What is the overall process of Rapid Application Development (RAD) methodology?
Want to actively involve end users in the analysis phase and in the iterative approach to the design, development, and testing of new software components. The end-user involvement and the use of prototyping ten…
Define selfsourcing or end-user development.
This is the development and support of IT systems by end users (knowledge workers) with little or no help from IT specialists.
What are the major tools for selfsourcing?
spreadsheets, database management systems, and Web development
What is the key aspect of selfsourcing (end-user development)?
This process encompasses prototyping (model building) and is key. When you develop a system for yourself, you will most often go through the process of prototyping, continually building on and refining your model or proto…
What is prototyping?
This is the process of building a model that demonstrates the features of a proposed product, service or system. So, it is simply a model of a proposed product, service or system. An invaluable re…
Distinguish prototype in selfsourcing vs. in insourcing.
Selfsourcing: most likely to use the targeted application software package or application development tool to develop the prototype. So, can continually refine the prototype until it becomes the final working system.
These are IT specialists within your organization.
Define insourcing when choosing who will build your information system.
What is outsourcing?
This is the delegation of specific work to a third party for a specified length of time, at a specified cost, and at a specified level of service.
How is the outsourcing process similar to the SDLC?
your organization begins with planning and defining the project scope
How is the outsourcing process different from the SDLC?
you turn over much of the design, development, testing, implementation, and maintenance steps to another organization
What is a Request for Proposal (RFP)?
This is a formal document that describes in excruciating detail your logical requirements for a proposed system and invites outsourcing organizations (which book refers to as vendors) to submit bids for its development. …
What is a Service Level Agreement (SLA)?
This is a formal contractually obligated agreement between two parties. In the context of systems development, it defines the work to be done, the time frame, the metrics that will be used to measure…
What is Onshore outsourcing?
This is the process of engaging another company in the same country for services.
What is Nearshore outsourcing?
This is contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country. Often, this country will share a border with the native country. Ex: US with Canada or US with Mexico
What is Offshore outsourcing?
This is contracting with a company that is geographically far away. For many companies, certain IT services, such as application development, maintenance, and help desk support, fall within the category of functions that are i…
Allows you to:
What are the advantages of outsourcing?