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What are standards?
In the technology environment, a standard is a framework of specifications that has been approved by a recognized organization or is generally accepted and widely used throughout by the industry
Allows for efficient communication
What are the Pro's of Standards
What is a De facto standard
a specification that became popular because everyone uses it, such as PDF, not because it was agreed upon by all parties
Name an example of De Facto Standard
does De facto standard = open standard
What is Proprietary standard?
Proprietary standard: a standard owned by a corporation and its use is licensed by it owners, typically for a fee. The standard can be changed at will
Name an example of Proprietary standard?
Example: game console and games - Star Wars, the Old Republic only runs on Windows
What are open Standards
In other words: an open standard is a standard that is not encumbered by a patent, does not require proprietary software, and can be utilized by anyone without cost
What are OPEN STANDARD CHARACTERISTICS?
Easy accessibility for all to read and use
What are the benefits of opens standards?
Less chance of being locked in by a specific technology and/or vendor
What are the open standards of the web protocols
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) - allowed for the creation of WWW
What are the open standards of the web pages
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) from the W3C and the Internet Organization for Standardization (ISO) - allowed
What are 2 types of Metadata?
The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set
What is Dublin Core?
The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set is a formal standard containing a set of 15 generic elements for describing electronic resources
What is MARC?
What is the OPEN ARCHIVES INITIATIVE
The goal of the initiative is to develop and promote interoperability standards that will facilitate efficient dissemination of digitally available content across various repositories - to make sure data within different repositories can be shared
What is OAI-PMH ?
Protocol for metadata harvesting (OAI-PMH): defines a protocol for harvesting metadata records from repositories that uses different systems; in other words, the protocol enables the sharing of metadata between services (think repository interoperability)
What is metradata Harvesting?
Harvest - the gathering together of metadata from a number of repositories into a combined data store
What open source elements does OAI-PMH use?
Uses Dublin Core (metadata format), HTTP ( to send request) and XML (to form response)
Why is OAI-PHM good?
Makes it possible to gather metadata from various sources into one database so that services can be provided based on this centrally harvested data
What is the difference between Data providers and service providers?
Data providers administer systems that support the OAI-PMH as a means of exposing metadata Example: National Library of Australia Digital Object Repository
What is DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (DOI) SYSTEM
Designed for identifying content objects in the digital environment, DOI is a persistent identifier for a digitally published article along with its location
Who manages DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (DOI) SYSTEM
Managed by the International DOI Foundation (IDF)
Why is DOI important
Information about a digital object may change over time, but its DOI name will remain the same - DOI is an actionable (there is definite syntax within the identifier), interoperable, persistent link
Example: ACM database
What is an example of DOI?
What is OpenURL
A user may come across an article in an indexing database (such as LISA) where the full text is not available. The full text may be available in another database (such as ACM) that…
What is an example of OpenURL
Example: Simmons Library's Article Now feature
Who creates the Open URL protocol?
A NISO (National Information Standards Organization) protocol for interoperability between an information resource and a service component
What is open source?
A particular way of developing, implementing and distributing software: The source code should be open for everyone to see, and the writing of the code is done in a collaborative, open way
What are the criteria of Open Source? (8)
Free redistribution: the license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources; nor shall it require roy…
Name 3 examples of Open Source
GNU: http://www.gnu.org/ - a free Unix-like operating system
What are the 4 freedoms of Open Source
What are the BENEFITS OF OPEN SOURCE
Often has lower implementation and support costs (online community support that could actually be more timely and effective)
What are the disadvantages OF OPEN SOURCE
May have a steeper learning curve