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Level 103

Programming Paradigm


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Speed of Code Generation
Approach to Testing
OOP: modular - simpler to test small portions of Code
Effect on Maintenance
Ability to meet Changed requirements
Efficiency of Solution Once Coded
measured in terms of speed e.g. response time
Learning Curve (Training Required)
Programming languages take time to Master
Paradigm
A philosophical or theoretical framework to refer to a type of programming language.
Sequential
definite beginning and a single end point
Event-driven
not a linear sequential structure
Procedural
programmer must define in detail all steps in exact order
Quantum Computing
atomic particles represent the values 0 and 1
computer recognises patterns
Neural Networks (Artificial Intelligence)
Machine Lanuage
e.g. Binary
assembly language
A low-level programming language in which a mnemonic is used to represent each of the machine language instructions.
Third Generation Language (3GL)
e.g. C++, Java, C, BASIC
Query and retrieval
Fourth Generation Language (4GL)
e.g. Prolog
Fifth Generation Languages (5GL)
Logic Paradigm
facts, rules and goals
Goal
A query that can result in either being fulfilled (Yes) or not being fulfilled (No).
Knowledge base
A database containing all the facts and rules.
Inference engine
The process the program uses to query the database to come up with a conclusion.
Backward Chaining
Assume the theory is true and then ask questions to systematically verify the necessary rules are present.
Forward Chaining
Start from the beginning of the facts and rules and ask questions to determine which path to follow next to arrive at a conclusion. Forward chaining can result in more than one conclusion.
Expert System
A piece of software programmed using artificial intelligence techniques. Such systems use databases of expert knowledge to offer advice or make decisions in such areas as medical diagnosis and trading on the stock exchange.
Heuristics
commonly accepted guidelines or procedures that usually find a good solution
Von Neumann Architecture
design model for stored-program Digital computer
Fetch-Execute Cycle
Instructions are fetched from RAM and decoded by the control unit. They are then executed by the ALU and the result is stored in a memory location.
Object-Oriented Paradigm
objects are self-contained modules
methods
Bob can eat sleep drink dream talk calculate his age
CLASSES
Class = blueprint, recipe
inheritance
designer, project manager & programmer are all based on and extend a person object
Polymorphism
Allows many different objects to use a particular behaviour or method. At runtime a method can process data differently depending on the circumstances.
encapsulation
Bob holds data (e.g. birth date) and methods that work with the data (e.g. calculate age)
Abstraction
In computer science, the mechanism and practice of abstraction reduces and factors out details so that one can focus on a few concepts at a time.
Overloading
Methods which have the same name but accept a different number of parameters or parameters of different types.
Overriding
Methods (or properties) which replace an inherited method (or property).
Imperative Paradigm
variables and control structures
Imperative Languages
A programming concept where code is produced as a series of statements or instructions to be carried out by the computer. These instructions change the program state.
Structured Languages
A programming concept aimed on improving the clarity of computer programmes to enable programmers to program more efficiently.
Procedural Languages
A programming paradigm that follows on from structured programming that uses sub routines such as procedures, functions and methods.
Event-Driven Languages
Event-based programming is a programming paradigm in which the flow of the program is determined by events e.g., sensor outputs or user actions (mouse clicks, key presses).
Declarative Languages
Where you write your code in such a way that it describes WHAT you want to do, and not how you want to do it. It is left up to the compiler to figure…
Logic Languages
A declarative programming paradigm based on formal logic. Programs written in a logical programming language are sets of logical sentences, expressing facts and rules about some problem. A logic programming language is Prolog.
Functional Languages
A declarative programming paradigm, a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs, that treats computation as the evaluation of mathematical functions. Functional programming emphasizes functions that produce results that depend onl…
Object-Oriented Languages
Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that represents concepts as "objects" that have data fields (attributes that describe the object) and associated procedures and functions known as methods. C++, Java, C#, Perl, Python, …
Class
A class is the blueprint from which individual objects are created. It is the code template you write.
Object (+instantation)
Objects, are instances of classes, and are the runtime implementation of the class code. In Visual Basic we use the New keyword to create an instance of a class or an runtime object.