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Level 101

Computers & Programming Languages


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Ada
A high level programming language that supports real-time applications
Address
a unique binary representation of a location in memory
address bus
a vital hardware path made by the CPU which places the address of the next item to be fetched on to the address bus.
ALU (arithmetic Logic Unit)
the part of the CPU that handles arithmetic and logic operations
Application software
consists of programs designed to make users more productive and/or assist with personal tasks
Base unit
Unit that contains the motherboard, diskette drive, and hard disk drive
BASIC
A high level programming language that was developed by John Kemeny and Thomas Kurtz
Binary number system
a numbering system that uses only 1's and 0's
Bit (binary digit)
a single 0 or 1 in binary code
Bus
A set of circuits that connect the CPU to other components
Bus topology
A LAN topology where each node of a network is connected to a single shared communication cable called a bus
Byte
2^3 bits=
C
a high level programming language that was developed by Dennis Ritchie
Cache memory
High speed memory used to store frequently used data so that it can be quickly retrieved by an application
Client/Server network
a group of computers, called clients, connected to a server
Clock rate
the speed at which a CPU can execute instructions, measured in megahertz
COBOL
a high level programming language that was designed by Grace Murray Hopper
Computer
A programmable machine designed to carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations
Control bus
carries control signals
CPU (central processing unit)
a component inside the base unit that processes data and controls the flow of data between the computer's other units
data bus
it's a hardware path where data travel from main memory into the CPU.
Fortran
a high level programming language that was developed by John Backus
GB (gigabyte)
1,000,000,000 bytes
Gigahertz
one billion cycles per second
Hardware
All of the physical devices that collectively constitute the item we think of as a desktop or a laptop computer
Hexadecimal system
Number system based on 16 digits. Also called Base 16
High level programming language
a programming language that uses English-like instructions
Hub
a device that joins communication lines at a central location on the network
Information age
A term used by historians to refer to the present
input device
a device that can be used to insert data into a computer or other computational device
IC (Integrated Circuit)
A silicon wafer with intricate circuits etched into its surface and then coated with a metallic oxide that fills in the etched circuit patterns. Also called a chip.
Kilobyte
1,024 bytes
LAN
A computer network confined to a building or a group of adjacent buildings, as opposed to a wide area network
Machine Language
Binary programming language that is specific to a computer. A computer can execute a program only after the program's source code is translated to object code expressed in the computer's machine language
Mainframe
computer system that is usually used for multi-user applications
MB (megabyte)
1,000,000 bytes
Megahertz
one million cycles per second
Memory
a component on the motherboard that stores data electronically
microcomputer
a computer that fits on a desktop and uses a microprocessor
microprocessor
an entire CPU on a single chip
motherboard
a circuit board that contains all of the computer system's main components.
nanosecond
one billionth of a second
netiquette
is the short of internet etiquette, and it is the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the internet
network
a cluster of computers. In a network, the server computer provides network services to the client computers on that network.
network architecture
includes the type of computers on the network and determines how network resources are handled
network interface card
a circuit board in the base unit of a networked computer
Node
A device connected to at least one other device on a network
operating system software
software that allows the user to communicate with the computer
output devices
allow users to get information OUT of the computer. Examples include the monitor, printer, and speakers.
overflow error
an error that occurs when the number of bits that are needed to represent the integer is greater than four bytes
personal computer
A computer designed to be used by one person at a time; the acronym PC is sometimes used to refer to IBM PCs and "compatibles" to distinguish them from Apple computers.
peer-to-peer network
a group of computer that share responsibilities and resources equally without a server
peripheral device
a device attached to a personal computer
piracy
the illegal copying of software
Program
A __________ virus infects program executable files.
RAM (random access memory)
temporary memory where data and instruction can be stored
Read
accessing data from a storage medium
real numbers
numbers that contain decimal points
ring topology
a LAN topology where each node of a network is connected to form a closed loop
ROM (read only memory)
data that is a permanent part of the computer and cannot be changed
Roundoff error
an error that occurs when there are not enough bits to hold the mantissa
Scanner
A java.util class with methods for reading input from the user.
Server
A dedicated computer that shares resources with other computers in a network.
Software
a collection of computer programs that tell the computer how to perform a particular task
SRAM (static random access memory)
high speed memory referred to as cache