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Evolution of Development

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Direct and Indirect Sea Urchin Development
-Two closely related sea urchin species have very different developmental patterns, though have very similar genes
Alterations in timing of developmental events due to a genetic change
Heterochrony could affect a gene that controls ..... from juvenile to adult.
Most mutations that affect developmental regulatory genes are ......
If mutation leads to increased fitness, then .... phenotype will persist
Alterations in the spatial pattern of gene expression
-Bizarre .... would have little survival value in the wild
Genetic "Tool kit"
About 2 dozen gene families regulate animal and plant development
Hox (homeobox)
genes establish the body plan by specifying when and where genes are expressed. Are a family of transcription factors.
Hox genes
code for proteins that bind to regulatory region of other genes:
Transcription Factors
Proteins that stabilize binding of RNA polmerase to promoter regions
DNA-binding motif -
binds regulatory region of DNA
Protein-binding motif
deliver binding specifity with domains of interacting proteins hence resulting in being part of a protein complex, may it be as effector or as central hub. They may also be involved into the co-operative asse…
MADS box genes
code for transcription factors
MADS genes
-Before flowering originated, a MADS box gene duplicated, giving PI and paleoAP3 genes
Are AP3 and PI genes necessary for petal development?
For these experiments the AP3 gene of Arabidopsis was "knocked out" and different versions of MADS genes were transgenically expressed.
Artificial Selection and Brassica oleracea subspecies
CAL and Apetala1 gene mutation changes regular flowers into masses of arrested flower buds
CAL cloned from Brassica
Stop codon, TAG, was found in the middle of the sequences in broccoli and cauliflower
Same gene, new function
Evolution of chordates can partially be explained by the co-option of an existing gene for a new function
-In mice and dogs, Brachyury mutation causes a short tail
Region of Brachyury gene encodes protein domain called T box, transcription factor
a transcription factor
Brachyury gene encodes ....... expressed in the developping notochord.
Homoplastic (analogous) structures
Different Genes, Convergent Function
Phylogenies reveal
convergent events
Insect wing patterns:
-Protect from predation, thermoregulation
name of the hox gene that causes uniramous and biramous appendages in arthropods
Evolution of Development
Overview of chapter 25