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Level 34

Challenges of an Urban World

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Carbon footprint
a measurement of all the greenhouse gases we individually produce, through burning fossil fuels for electricity, transport, etc., expressed as tonnes (or kg) of carbon-dioxide equivalent
Is household expenditure on goods and services
the movement of people and employment from major cities to smaller settlements and rural areas located just beyond the city, or to more distant smaller cities and towns
a measure of how much land is needed to provide a place (e.g. a city) with all the energy, water and materials it needs, including how much is needed to absorb its pollution and waste
Informal economy
forms of employment that are not officially recognised, e.g. people working for themselves on the streets of developing cities
disposal of rubbish by burying it and covering it over with soil
Cities with more than 10 million people
Natural increase
the difference between birth rate and death rate
the presence of chemicals, noise, dirt or other substances which have harmful or poisonous effects on an environment
Quality of life
the degree of well-being (physical and psychological) felt by an individual or a group of people in a particular area. This can relate to their jobs, wages, food, amenities in their homes, and the serv…
a process, usually accompanied by industrialisation, where people move from traditional life in the countryside to towns and cities
World cities
the leading cities of the world, such as London, New York and Tokyo; major centres in the economic networks being produced by globalisation. They are major centres of finance, business and political influence, and…