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Level 33

Ecosystems & Communities

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Day-to-day conditions of Earth's atmosphere
Average year-after-year patterns of temperature and precipitation
Environmental conditions within a small area that differs significantly from the climate of the surrounding area
greenhouse effect
Situation in which heat is retained in Earth's atmosphere due to accumulation of greenhouse gases
The ability to survive and reproduce under a range of environmental conditions
The general place where an organism lives
What an organism does and how it interacts with the abiotic and biotic factors in the environment
Any necessity of life, such as water, nutrients, light, food and space
competitive exclusion principle
The rule that says that no two species can occupy exactly the same niche in the same habitat at exactly the same time
Interaction in which one organism (the predator) captures and feeds on another organism (the prey)
Interaction in which one animal feeds on producers
keystone species
A species in which a change in its population causes a dramatic change in the structure of the community
Any relationship in which two organisms live closely together
A relationship between organisms in which both benefit
A relationship in which one organism lives on or inside of another organism and harms it
A relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
ecological succession
A series of somewhat predictable changes that occur in a community over time
primary succession
A succession that begins in an area where there are no remnants of an older ecosystem
pioneer species
The first species to arrive or colonize a barren area
secondary succession
A succession that occurs in an area where remnants of a previous ecosystem, such as soil, remain
The dense, leafy covering formed by tall trees
The shaded area just below the canopy that is characterized by shorter trees and vines
A plant that sheds its leaves during a particular season
Trees that produce seed-bearing cones, most with leaves shaped like needles
Material formed from decaying leaves and other organic matter
Dense forests of conifers along the northern edge of the temperate zone; also called boreal forests
A layer of permanently frozen subsoil found in the tundra
photic zone
Sunlit region near the surface of a body of water in which photosynthesis can occur
aphotic zone
Dark region in a body of water where no photosynthesis occurs; below the photic zone
Organisms living on, or in, rocks and sediments at the bottom of lakes, streams, or oceans
Phytoplankton (photosynthetic algae) and zooplankton (free floating small animals)
Ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of the year
A special kind of wetland, formed where a river meets the sea