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Reconstruction of the US Post Civil War

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President Lincoln: Reconstruction goal(page 513)
wanted to reunite the nation as quickly and painlessly as possible
Ten Percent Plan
offered southerners amnesty or official pardon for illegal acts supporting the rebellion. Southerners had to swear an oath of loyalty to the US and had to agree that slavery was illegal
John Wilkes Booth
assassinated Abraham Lincoln
Reconstruction: definition
the process of readmitting the former Confederate states to the Union. A quickly and painlessly as possible
Reconstruction goal (lincoln)
as quickly and painlessly as possible
Radical Republicans: leaders
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner
13th Amendment
made slavery illegal throught the US
14th Amendment
Gave citizenship to anyone in the US besides the Native Americans
The 14th amendment's origin
It was passed in order to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1866, was proposed before the southern states were readmitted into the Union because otherwise it would not be able to pass
15th Amendment
gave African American men the right to vote
Black Codes
laws that restricted the freedom of African Americans, usually passed by southerners
Example of a Black Code
Gun ownership was not permitted to African Americans
Andrew Johnson: his Reconstruction plan
told the southerners not to pay off CSA debts, to ratify the 13th Amendment, and to declare secession to be illegal (these were soft proposals that didn't require much sincerity)
Andrew Johnson's use of veto power
Since Congress was majority Republican and Johnson was Democrat they didn't get along. Congress would pass a bill, Johnson would VETO it but then Congress would override it. This happened a lot therefore Johnson …
Andrew Johnson's relationship with Congress
They didn't get as long because of there differences of parties and opinions
Andrew Johnson's impeachment's verdict
Johnson broke the law by firing one of the cabinet members without Senate approval, they filed for impeachment against Johnson, he didn't get impeached because they were one vote shy
Freedman's Bureau: purpose?
1865, it was a federal organization to help poor southerners (white or African american), they established more schools in the south and were trying to get more people educated
President Andrew Johnson's opinion of the Freedman's Bureau
thought it was unconstitutional, and he thought Congress could not pass laws until the southern states representatives were present in Congress
Reconstruction Acts
laws that divided the south into five military districts with one military leader as its supervisor
life of freed slaves
-couples legalized marriages, women worked at home instead of in the fields, searched for relatives, adopted dead relatives children to try to keep families together. But there was also discrimination and segregation still there
work contracts
an example of black codes, there were to make life harder for African Americans. the conditions were similar to those under slavery. And if a African American could not prove that they were employed …
Ku Klux Klan
a secret society that opposed civil rights, particularly suffrage, for African Americans. They used violence and terror against African Americans. They wore robes and masks to hide their identities, and they sometimes murdered anyone…
Wade-Davis Bill
proposed by Radical Republicans, said that the state had to ban slavery and a majority of adult males in the state had to take the loyalty oath
Jim Crow laws
laws that enforced segregation between whites and blacks in transport and public facilities and even outlawed marriage between the two racial groups
If an African American didn't have enough money to move away from their plantation, the landlord would give them a plot of land, seeds and some tools, they would have to grow crops and exch…
northerners who went to the south to make money off the Reconstruction. They were shunned because they weren't going down to the south to help, they were just going to make a quick buck.
White Republicans who lived in the south and were looked down upon because in the south being a Republican is looked upon negatively. They wanted more civil rights for African Americans. Scalawags meant greedy rascals
White Democrats in the south who were going against the scalawags. They didn't want Reconstruction, they were racists that were against civil rights for African Americans. They started the poll tax and literacy tests. …
Civil Rights Act of 1866
provided African Americans with the same legal rights as white Americans. Johnson tried to use his veto power against this but Congress overrode his veto. The southerners didn't take this act seriously.
Hiram Revels
the first African American senator, he took Jefferson Davis's seat in the senate
quote on page 513 in Wade-Davis section of textbook
The people of the North are not such fools as to ...turn around and say to the traitors,'all you have to do [to return] is...take an oath that henceforth you will be true to…
Congress' refusal to re-admit the Southern states to the Union (1865)
Johnson tried to put ex-Confederate leaders into Congress. Congress saw through it and said that they would not take these people because of their former positions against the Union.reed th they would recognize Republican Ruther…
Compromise of 1877
A deal between the Democrats and the Republicans. The Democrats agreed to recognize Republican Rutherford Hayes as the new president, but they would have to remove the federal troops from the south
Ulysses S. Grant
18th president. President after Johnson. His presidency wasn't as good as his military career.
built more schools, hospitals, prisons, orphanages
achievements of Southern state governments during Reconstruction
the Reconstruction government paid for it by raising taxes and issued bonds.
how were these southern state improvements paid for? (see page 525, State Governments Change Direction)
U.S. Supreme Court case Plessy v. Ferguson - "separate but equal"
They said segregation was allowed if "separate but equal" facilities were provided. This made segregation more widespread then ever. African Americans had separate schools, libraries and parks that were poorer quality then that of…
sharecropping disadvantages (p.529 bottom paragraph)
It was a flawed system because the harvest could go bad then the slave would be broke and they would have to buy all their personal goods on credit. It was almost impossible to…
p.528 = poll tax
a special tax people had to pay before they could vote, this was an effort to deny the vote to African Americans
grandfather clause
affected men whose fathers or grandfathers could vote before 1867, in this case the voter did not have to pay a poll tax or pass a literacy test, almost every white man didn't have to pay
literacy tests
they had to pass a literacy test to vote. This targeted African Americans because most were illiterate.