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Breakdown of the Roman Repubic

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Beginning in the 700s BCE, 7 kings were the first rulers of Rome. Their expulsion laid the foundation for the Roman Republic.
The last Etruscan king, was expelled from Rome after the rape of Lucretia.
Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate.
Could trace their heritage back to the
Roman commoners and farmers. The poorer majority working class; couldnt be part of government; could vote but not hold office. They were excluded from political, legal economic and religious rights.
Patron client system
Relations in which "Patron" gains support of "Client" through mutual exchange of benefits and obligations. Patron gave benefits, especially gifts/loans legal advice and representation. Clients have respecet, support and votes to their patron.
Pater Familias
father of the family; exercised absolute authority. Generally the eldest man of the house, and he ruled the household; he'd decide marriage for the children, and what job they would do and he could pun…
Mos Maiorum
The custom of our ancestors, an unwritten code of laws and conduct, of the Romans. It institutionalised cultural traditions, societal norms, and general policies, as distinct from specific laws.
Regarded as the sum of the personal and ancestral clout and influence that a male citizen acquired throughout his life. Factors such as personal reputation, moral standing, and ethical worth had to be considered, a…
Supreme executive power and authority in the Roman republic, involving both military and judicial authority. It was exercised and held by the chief magistrates (consuls, dictators, praetors).
Struggle of the Orders
A great social conflict that developed between patricians and plebeians; the plebeians wanted real political representation and safeguards against patrician domination. Resulted in the establishment of the Twelve Tables and Tribunes.
This meant that it was Illegal to physically harm any Tribune, on punishment of death. If any man did try to harm a Tribune it was the right of all surrounding citizens to com…
The Twelve Tables
The earliest written collection of Roman laws, drawn up after the Struggle of the Orders by patricians about 450 B.C. Became the foundation of Roman law.
Punic Wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome's dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Hannibal Barca
Carthaginian military commander who, in the Second Punic War, attempted a surprise attack on Rome, crossing the Alps with a large group of soldiers, horses, and elephants.
Because of the riches brought into Rome, these massive estates were built by rich families. As Rome conquered more and more territory, conquered people were forced to work here as slaves. These estates hurt…
The mob
The Plebeians, or working class of Rome who when grouped together
Commitia Centuriata
Ancient Roman military assembly, instituted 450 bc. It decided on war and peace, passed laws, elected consuls, praetors, and censors, and considered appeals of capital convictions.
The means by which the Roman state collected tax, varied from area to area. The roman state didn't collect it on its own. They entrusted the collection to Publicani. They were businessmen and private citi…
In the early Roman Republic, one of the richest classes in the Roman army, those who could afford to maintain a horse. By the late Republic, their role expanded into banking and commerce.
Ager Publicus
Public Lands After Rome defeated areas, the land was turned into public lands. This land was meant to be handed over to citizens and veterans of the legions but was illegally acquired by patricians.…
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies. Chief executive officers who held the power of imperium.
Basically authority, the ability to lead and rule. Referred to the general level of prestige a person had in Ancient Roman society and in particular politics. It had particular meaning in the Senate wher…
They were second to the consuls; were primarily judicial officials (judges); They had to be at least 39 years old.
Roman magistrates responsible for maintining roads and public buildings and originally also for the public games and supply of grain to the city.
Roman magistrates elected annually by the comitia tributa. They were financial and administrative officials in charge of the treasury and served as paymasters in the military. Part of the cursus honorum and was a necessary preliminary position for senators.
A magistrate whose original functions of registering citizens and their property. Leter atexpanded to include supervision of senatorial rolls and moral conduct, also assessed property for taxation and contracts, penalised moral offenders by removing t…
A temporary magistrate with extraordinary powers, nominated by a consul on the recommendation of the Senate and confirmed by the Comitia Curiata.
Senatus consultum ultimum
A state of emergency that could be called for by the Roman senate; when this state of emergency was in effect, the consuls could do almost anything they thought necessary to restore order to Rome and safeguard the Republic.
Cursus Honorum
the path of honor, to move up a level in the political sense; sequence of magistracies (high to low): consul, praetor, quaestor, aedile.
An official of ancient Rome elected by the plebians to protect their rights.
Comitia Tributa
After the Struggle of the Orders, plebs were given the right to their own assembly, to which they could elect their own (Tribunes) to represent them and their voice in Roman legislature. They were all…
Roman politicians who sought to pursue a political career based on the support of the people rather than just the aristocracy.
the "best men" who believed in working through the Senate and in gaining power through the Senate and in gaining power through the traditional means of family alliances, patronage, etc.