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A means to remove harmful organisms from food products through heat.
Building on the work of Pasteur, he developed new medical and surgical procedures to prevent bacterial infections. The invention of ether and chloroform as anesthetics, combined with his antiseptic procedures, greatly increased the survivability of surgical procedures.
An artistic movement which depicts life as it actually is.
One of the best known realist authors. His novels accurately depicted the misery of London's poor in books such as Oliver Twist and David Copperfield. and displayed the terror inflicted by Enlightenment ideals when t…
Oliver Twist and David Copperfield
Two novels of Charles Dickens that accurately depicted the misery of London's poor.
A Tale of Two Cities
Novel written by Charles Dickens in which he displays the terror inflicted by Enlightenment ideals when taken too far.
French author who is another model author for realism. His most famous work is Madame Bovary. He was also highly critical of romantic ideals and bourgeoise values.
The most famous work of Gustave Flaubert, which describes the bleak existence in a small French town.
Gustave Courbet and Jean-Francois Millet
The best-known and most influential Realist painters. Realist paintings began in France, and focused on the everyday life of ordinary people.
New German School
In music, artists who led this movement were the last of the Romantic composers. They emphasized emotion over style and experimented with new musical techniques.
Romantic music peaked with his work, who was best known for his mastery of the piano.
German composer who was influenced by Liszt but specialized in operas based on Germanic myths.
The wealthiest industrialists, bankers, and merchants as well as the landed nobility. A small amount composed part of European society.
doctors, lawyers, managers, and engineers
This group of educated professionals made up the middle class below the upper class.
small shopkeepers and tradesman
This group of people in these professions made up a growing lower middle class.
salesman, secretaries, and clerks
This group between the lower middle class was a new group of white-collar
Regardless of position, the entire middle class came to share with the upper class the values of hard work and moral, Christian behavior that defined this age. During this age, middle class life centere…
electricity, steal, chemicals, and oil
New technologies and products that developed in the second half of the 19th century that led to a boom in industrial growth known as the Second Industrial Revolution.
Second Industrial Revolution
A boom in industrial growth in the second half of the 19th century resulting from the development of new technologies and products. Europeans viewed all of this technological progress as positive, and these new technolog…
Thomas Edison and Joseph Swan
Invented the incandescent light bulb around the same time.
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telelphone, making instant long-distance communication possible. Although still attached to wires, his telephones were a major improvement over telegraphs because they transmitted words.
Made wireless communication possible with the invention of the radio. Not only could radio communicate to individuals, they could broadcast messages simultaneously to millions of listeners.
internal combustion engine
Invention fueled by petroleum distillates that led to revolution in transportation.
Orville and Wilbur Wright
Brothers who built the first airplane glider and four-cylinder combustion engine for an airplane. This helped with communication, and mail services.
Developed in factories allowing mass production.
This meant goods could be produced more cheaply, efficiently, and in much greater numbers, which led to rising wages for factory workers and lower prices for goods. With greater buying power, the working class c…
a fee charged for goods brought into a country from another country
Formed to decrease domestic competition. They were composed of individual companies within the same industry that worked together to set prices and production limits that virtually eliminated competition.
The Second Industrial Revolution gave Western Europeans a much higher standard of living than that of people in Eastern Europe, which remained this type of society well into the 20th century.
Industrial growth and improvements in transportation allowed this to be dominated by Western Europe and the U.S.
The movement for women's rights, which began to grow in the late 1800's as more and more women demanded suffrage.
the legal right to vote, extended to the African Americans by the fifteenth amendment, to women by the nineteenth amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the twenty sixth amendment
In England, she founded the Women's Social and Political Union.
Women's Social and Political Union
Founded by Emmiline Pankhurst, they staged parades and wild stunts, which sometimes turned violent, to draw attention to their cause.
patriotism and nationalism
Two ideas that were instilled in children at school, even after changes were made that improved education.
Better education led to an increase in this among the working class. Along with lower printing costs, this high level of literacy led to a growth in the popularity and influence of daily newspapers.
Means that the prime minister and his cabinet are chosen by the parliament rather than a monarch, and are therefore responsible to those who are themselves elected by the people. This concept was relie…
Events such as the many decolonization movements in the post-WWII era, Kosovo's tense relationship with Serbia, and Chechen resistance demonstrate this ideology still plays a significant role in European and world affairs
Reform Acts of 1867 and 1884
Acts that extended the right to vote to all men in England who paid regular rents or taxes. In England, suffrage continued to exand as a result.
Completely redrew boroughs to establish districts with equal populations.
Act of Union of 1801
United the Irish and British Parliaments, in order to grant the Irish additional political rights and power. However, nationalism led Irish Catholic tenant farmers to detest their Protestant British landlords.
Irish Land League
Called for Independence, and Irish peasants resorted to terrorism against England.
An Irish MP, asked Parliament for home rule, which would grant Ireland self-government but not complete independence.
Question to which Glandstone tried to find a peaceful solution. He introduced a home rule bill for Ireland in 1886 and again in 1893, but each time the bill was defeated by the Conservatives.…
An independent republican government in Paris formed by the radicals.
Despite their victory, the monarchists could not agree on a king, so instead they formed this...
Chamber of Deputies
Name for the Parliament in the 3rd Republic and was elected by the people. In turn, the Deputies chose the Prime Minister and the cabinet.
Generation of 1898
A group formed by a group of young intellectuals that demanded political and social reforms; however, in 1909 the government brutally suppressed a worker's revolt in Barcelona, ending further reform efforts.
Germany's elected parliament that was elected by universal male suffrage, the chancellor and other ministers were chosen by the Kaiser, who also directly controlled the army, foreign policy, and internal administration.
Bismarck worked with liberals on this systematic attack on the Catholic Church.
Name for Marxists who rejected the idea of violent revolution in favor or working within the existing politcal system to gradually gain politcal power and implement Communist ideology.
Social Democratic Party
Party heavily infuenced by Marxism, organized to improve conditions for workers. By 1912 it was the largest party in Germany.