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Emergence of Modern Europe

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Ottoman Empire
Throughout the early 1800's they were in decline and often referred to as the "sick man of Europe", although the Ottomans still controlled the Balkans in Southeastern Europe.
sick man of Europe
Nickname of the Ottoman Empire during their decline.
Area of Southeastern Europe still controlled by the Ottomans.
Eastern Question
Question with which other European nations were concerned that regarded namely how they would eventually divide the disintegrating Ottoman Empire.
England and France
Feared Russian expansion and allied with the Ottomans, leading to a larger conflict known as the Crimean War.
Crimean War
Began when England and France, fearing Russian expansion, allied with the Ottomans creating a large conflict. it is famous for errors on both sides that led to much unnecessary bloodshed. It was also the…
Florence Nightingale
Most casualties in the war were from disease, which led to the development of modern sanitation and nursing practice by this women whose efforts also made nursing a trained profession for many middle-class women.
telegraphs and railroads
Contributing to factor which modernized the Crimean war allowing reports from the battlefield to keep the public informed of both victories and defeats.
Battle of Balaclava
The most famous battle of the Crimean war, mostly because of a British mistake.
Light Brigade
A calvary unit that was ordered to charge Russian artillery and infantry units despite being outnumber 10-1. Hundreds of British soldiers were killed.
Nicholas I
The czar of Russia, whose death, heavy losses of troops, and the loss of Sevastopol led Russia to agree to a peace treaty.
Concert of Europe
Although little territory changed hands, this was destroyed. Austria and Russia became rivals fro the Balkans, Russia and England withdrew from European affairs, and Austria became isolate diplomatically.
Germany and Italy
These two countries eventually were unified.
Archduke Maximilian of Austria
With the support of French troops, he was named by Napoleon III as the Emperor of Mexico. Events in Europe forced Napoleon to withdraw French forces from Mexico, and without military support, he was overth…
Italian nationalists hoped to unify Italy under this independent state in Northern Italy.
Victor Emmanuel II
Became the King of Piedmont and appoint Camillo di Cavour as prime minister.
Camillo di Cavour
Brilliant politician appointed by Victor Emmanuel II as prime minister of Piedmont. He was a wealthy, liberal nationalist who wanted to create a unified Italy under a constitutional government. His policies led to an econ…
With no allies, Austria lost two major battles to French forces. However, when Prussia threatened to support Austria, France withdrew and Piedmont only gained this territory.
Giuseppe Garibaldi led his army of Red Shirts here in a successful revolt against the king. He then led his army into southern Italy and began to march on Rome.
Giuseppe Garibaldi
He led his army of Red Shirts in a successful revolt against the king. He then led his army into southern Italy and began to march on Rome.
Red Shirts
Name of the army which Giuseppe Garibaldi led in a successful revolt against the king. This army was then led into southern Italy and began to march on Rome.
Was still held by Austria, while France controlled Rome.
Was controlled by France, while Austria still held Venetia.
German Confederation
After the destruction of the Holy Roman Empire by Napoleon, the Congress of Vienna organized the German states into a loose alliance known as this.
The dominant state in the north of the German Confederation.
The dominant state in the south of the German Confederation.
Customs union formed by Prussia which eliminated tolls between states. This stimulated trade among the member countires, and by 1853 every German state except Austria was a member.
Wilhelm I
Became king of Prussia. He believed Prussia could only remain strong through an authoritarian central government and militarism.
maintaining a powerful standing army
Otto von Bismarck
Appointed by William I, as an ultra-conservative prime minister to take charge of the government, when the Prussian parliament rejected the military budget submitted by William I. He suppressed rights to maintain control and …
Ideal on which Bismarck's policies were based, which means policies were based on reality rather than theories, morals, or ethics. He did whatever was necessary to expand Prussian power, including making alliances with enemies or turning on allies.
Schleswig and Holstein
Denmark moved to incorporate these two German states, Prussia allied with Austria against Denmark.
Austro-Prussian War
War which ended very quickly.
Battle of Koniggratz
At this battle the superiority of Prussian rifles and training led to a crushing defeat for Austria.
North German Confederation
New alliance of Protestant German states in the north organized by Bismarck.
Napoleon III
Took personal command of the French army but was defeated and captured at the Battle of Sedan.
Battle of Sedan
Battle at which Napoleon III's army was defeated and he himself was captured. Prussian artillery then began shelling Paris, which eventually forced France to surrender.
Franco-Prussian War
Results in Prussia gaining control of Alsace and Lorraine, two key regions along the border between France and Germany.
Alsace and Lorraine
Two key regions along the border between France and Germany, under the control of Prussia.
William I
Named kaiser of the German Empire.
Prussian name for king
Austrian Empire
FAced the greatest challenge from nationalistic movements because it was a multinational state.
multinational state
State that contained different ethnic groups controlled by a single government.
The Ausgleich (Compromise) of 1867
Created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary.
Francis Joseph I
Common emperor of Austria and Hungary.
Alexander II
Became Czar of russia. The defeat in the Crimean War convinced him that major reforms were needed for Russia to compete with Western Europe. He also freed the serfs of Russia with an emancipation edict.
Name for a system of local assemblies created by Alexander II to provide limited political power to the people, as well as legal reforms which created a ommonlegal system in Russia that guaranteed legal equality for all.
Alexander Herzen
Radical, who believed Russia should be formed into independent peasant villages, leading to the spread of populism.
Sought to create a new Russian society through peasant revolts.
Alexander III
Son and successor of Alexander II who abandoned all reforms and returned Russia to a repressive autocracy after seeing his father brutaly assassinated.
Benjamin Disraeli
Torie leader throughout most of the late 19th century. Their leadership provided stability in Parliament and contributed to the growth of the British Empire.
William Gladstone
Whig leader throughout most of the late 19th century. Their leadership provided stability in Parliament and contributed to the growth of the British Empire.
Reform Act of 1867
Act passed by Disraeli, now prime minister, which gave the vote to many urban workers.
Education Act of 1870
Created free, compulsory public education for all children. Passed under rule of liberal, William Gladstone, who was prime minister.
British North America Act
Passed by England; it established Canada as an independent nation.
John Macdonald
Named the first prime minister of Canada. Canada ruled itself in domestic affairs but Canadian foreign policy was still conducted by Britain.
joint-stock investment banks
The rapid construction of railroads was made possible by the creation of these, which were able to amass huge sums of capital for investment.
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
In response to the plight of the industrial working class, they published The Communist Manifesto.
The Communist Manifesto
Advocated a radical form of socialism which became known as communism or Marxism. Published by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
communism or Marxism
radical form of socialism
Against the emerging capitalist class.
Another name for the industrial middle class supposedly continually oppressed by the bourgeoisie.
Das Kapital
A series of books on political economy, but spent most of the rest of his life trying to organize workers into labor unions to avance the interests of industrial unions that he only go…
Karl Marx
An atheist who believed the Church helped the bourgeoisie oppress the proletariat. He also was an internationalist, believing that the state served only the ruling classes.
Begining in the 19th century, faith in science and technology began to grow, while faith in religion began to decline, leading to this...
a flawed force that has portrayed actuality through perception rather than sensuous human activity, past materialism "is too passive and ahistorical"
Charles Darwin
Wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
Exemplifies the idea of materialism by challenging the Biblical account of creation. Written by Charles Darwin.
organic evolution
Darwin's theory states that species evolve over time from simpler forms to more complex forms by a process called this.
natural selection
Survival of the fittest. Species that are more adaptable survive, while those that cannot adapt to the changing environment eventually die.
Louis Pasteur
His development of the germ theory of disease was the first major step in creating effective modern medicines. Later he developed a vaccine for rabies. The principle behind his rabies vaccine led to effective treatm…
germ theory
Developed by Louis Pasteur it was the idea that sicknesses of diseases were caused by tiny little microorganisms called germs. Each specific type of germ caused a specific disease.