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Rise of Big Business & the Emergence of Modern Ame

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Pacific Railway Acts of 1862 and 1864
Because the transcontinental railroads ran through sparsely settled lands, they offered little change of immediate profit. Yet they did serve a national purpose of binding the country together and thus received government support. This sup…
robber barons/"captains of industry"
Railroad men engaged in a number of shady financial deals (the Credit Mobilier, etc.), but the government recovered much if not all of its investment in transcontinental railroads and accomplished the purpose of linking…
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telelphone, making instant long-distance communication possible. Although still attached to wires, his telephones were a major improvement over telegraphs because they transmitted words.
Thomas Alva Edison
Nicknamed the "Wizard of Menlo Park" this individual ranks above all other inventors. His inventions included the phonograph in 1877 and the incandescent light built in 1879. In addition to these inventions, he also fig…
George Westinghouse
This inventor of the air brake, developed the first alternating current system in 1886. Like Edison, __________ established his own business—the __________ Electric Company—to manufacture his own inventions. In 1888, Nikola Tesla, a Croatian immigr…
Businessmen turned to this new form of organization to overcome the weaknesses of the antebellum system. This represents a form of business organization created by a state charter. It enables a group of individual…
limited liability
A feature of corporations which protects the personal assets of the stockholders against seizure to satisfy claims against the business.
A corporation's exclusive control of a commodity or service in a particular market which makes it possible for them to control and/or manipulate prices. Following the Civil War, business leaders increasingly moved to combine competing corporations to create this.
In their quest to control markets, corporate entrepreneurs utilized a variety of devices. This device was an agreement—usually secret—among competing companies to fix prices and output, or to divide sales territories. In the 1870s…
In their quest to control markets, corporate entrepreneurs utilized a variety of devices. This device represented permanent consolidation than the pool. In a __________, stockholders of competing companies turned their stock over to a b…
holding company
In their quest to control markets, corporate entrepreneurs utilized a variety of devices. This device bought sufficient voting stock in different companies called subsidiaries in order to control them. Although some complex forms of hol…
interlocking directorate
In their quest to control markets, corporate entrepreneurs utilized a variety of devices. This device is an arrangement in which one or more men served on the boards of directors of several companies. Today t…
In their quest to control markets, corporate entrepreneurs utilized a variety of devices. This device was derived from the consolidation of two or more companies into a single corporation. The __________ remains legal unles…
Cornelius Vanderbilt
Nicknamed "Commodore," this individual acquired a fortune from steamboat operations before turning to focus to railroads. He built the New York Central and, by 1869, had combined a group of small lines into one rail…
John D. Rockefeller
A food merchant who entered the oil refining business and, in 1870, formed the Standard Oil Company of Ohio. Rockefeller ruthlessly use price wars, secret railroad rebate on oil shipments, and the Panic of …
andrew carnegie
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
horizontal integration
(Expansion by means of swallowing up competitors in the same area of business—i.e. a railroad swallowing up other railroads—is called horizontal integration.)
vertical integration
Expansion with the goal of corporate self-sufficiency. Practiced by John D. Rockefeller.
John Pierpont Morgan
This individual was born into a wealthy family. Greatly increased his inheritance during his career, He did so by means of investment banking. Basically, investment banking represented a marketing operation in which he bought st…
Commonwealth v Hunt
Starting with this case (Massachusetts, 1842), state and federal courts would slowly begin to accept the rights of labor.
Molly Maguires
A secret organization of dissident mine workers of the Appalachian coal fields, turned to limited terrorism in an attempt to win concessions from management. Instead of negotiating, management infiltrated the membership with detectives and …
Railroad Strike of 1877
This grew out of worker resentment over wage cuts and the blacklisting of union members by railroad management. The incident began when workers on the B&O Railroad wen on strike. The strike led to ri…
Uriah S. Stephens
organized the Knights of Labor as a secret fraternal organization with elaborate rituals in 1869. The organization admitted all workers, both skilled and unskilled, regardless of race or national origin. Regardless of occupation or cr…
Terence V. Powderly
This individual soon emerged as the Knights of Labor's leader with the title of "Grand Master Workman" He abandoned Stephens' desire for a secret society and under his guidance, the Knights of Labor had devel…
Haymarket Affair
This event proved devastating to all organized labor, but especially to the highly visible Knights of Labor. The events surrounding this tragedy began when police brutalized workers demonstration for an eight hour workday. Workers organ…
Samuel Gompers
..., United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
bread and butter unionism
The American Federation of Labor (AFL, 1881) emphasized this—the furthering of the economic well-being of its members through strong unions.
Pullman Strike
During this 1894 strike workers at the __________ railroad car plant near Chicago went on strike to protest a wage cut of as much as 40%. This reduction in wages was unaccompanied by any …
Eugene V. Debs
Led the American Railway Union. He chose to ignore the injuction secured by United States Attorney General Richard Olney and was consequently held in contempt to court.
Attorney General Richard Olney
This individual was the United States Attorney General, formerly a railroad lawyer, moved quickly to break the strike. Using the Sherman Antitrust Act which prohibited conspiracies "in restraint of trade," he secured an injunction aga…
A court order directing someone to do something or to refrain from doing something
Danbury Hatter's Strike
Occurred in 1902. It involved workers of the Lowe Hat Company in Danbury, Connecticut. The striking workers organized in a successful boycott of the company's products, but the company sued the union for damages u…
Daniel DeLeon
. The Socialist Labor Party attracted little noise before the rise this individual in the 1890s. Although __________ may have influenced V.I. Lenin, he preached revolution at the ballot box—not by violence. As edito…
Eugene Debs
1855-1926. American union leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and five-time Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate.
Victor Berger
This Austrian-born Socialist, was elected as a House of Reps member for Milwaukee, but was denied his seat in 1919 during a wave of anti-socialist hysteria.
Woody Guthrie
American songwriter and folksinger who flourished in the 1930s, travling with migrant workers from Oklahoma to California and writing numerous songs about social injustice and the hardships of the Great Depression years; two of…
Pete Seeger
Folk Revival musician who was a pioneer in protest music to support international disarmament and civil rights. He was "blacklisted" in the McCarthy scandal. "If I Had a Hammer", "We Shall Overcome" were among…
The Little Red Songbook
A part of the folklore left behind by the Wobblies. Songs like "this Land is Your Land" were rediscovered because of it by folk singers like Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie.
Henry Cabot Lodge
This Republican House Representative from Massachusetts moved to pass a law which excluded illiterates—a bill that would have been affected most new immigration. Congress enacted bills embodying this restriction four times, but three presidents ve…
Emergency Immigration Act of 1921
This law marked a major nativist victory as it restricted immigrants to a percentage based on the number of foreign born of that nationality already in the United States (i.e. 3% of Irish born alr…
Immigration Act of 1924
This law reduced the 3% quota to 2%. The law completely excluded East Asians form immigrating to America. The law did not restrict immigration to the United States from countries in the Western Hemisphere. …
Gentleman's Agreement
an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan whereby the U.S. would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration or students, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S.
Elisha Graves Otis
This individual developed the firsts safety elevator, which would not fall if the rope of cable broke, in 1852. In 1889, the Otis Elevator Company installed the first electrical elevator. This development made possible…
steel frame construction
The development of cast-iron and __________-__________ construction provided additional impetus to the vertical growth of cities.
William LeBaron Jenny
Much of the impulse to new design centered in Chicago; which had to rebuild after the great fire of 1871. There, this individual, built a metal skeleton for the ten-story Home Life Insurance building, fini…
Louis Sullivan
This architect whose motto was "form follows function," pioneered a plain, functional style in reaction against the elaborate Victorian decoration of buildings common at the time. __________ designed Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company department s…
Carson, Pirie, Scott, and Company
Louis Sullivan designed this department store (completed in 1904). It became the masterpiece of the Chicago architecture school.
Woolworth Building
Although Chicago had taken the early lead in skyscraper construction, New York—with its need for prime downtown space—took the lead after the mid-1890s. The climax of New York's construction surge came in 1913, with…
Frank Sprague
This individual went far towards solving the problems of urban mass transit when he developed the first successful electric trolley car system for Richmond in 1888. Other cities rapidly adopted his system. The electric tro…
streetcar suburbs
The development of the electric trolley car particularly benefited middle class families who could reside in "__________," while continuing to enjoy the economic and cultural benefits of the city. Lacking any overall plan, u…
Around the turn of the century, type of public transport began to function in Boston, Philadelphia, and New York. Even before the development of this, New York had been experimenting with elevated trains ("els") pu…
James B. Eads
This individual made major accomplishments in bridge building with his cantilevered steel bridge (Eads Bridge) over the Mississippi River at St. Louis (1874)
Washington Roebling
This individual is attributed with the construction of the cable-supported Brooklyn Bridge (1883) which linked Brooklyn to Manhattan.
private city
This is shaped mainly by the actions of individuals. For example, the growth of cities proved an exercise of private enterprise. The great innovations of the period—the trolley car, the skyscraper, the elevator, electric light…
dumbbell tenements
Not surprisingly, urban growth gave rise to numerous problems. Workers in big cities often had no choice of residence other crowded, poorly designed working class neighborhoods. "Dumbbell" tenements began to appear in New Yor…
Tenement House Law of 1901
When private philanthropy proved inadequate, reformers sought legislative solutions through stronger housing codes. This was the most advanced of these laws. Although this law applied stringent requirements for open courtyards, indoor toilets, and stronger …
Tammany Hall
One of the "political machines" that emerged in New York. This organization was the dominant force in urban politics.
George Washington Plunkitt
In exchange for their services, the political professionals of the machine felt entitles to some reward. __________ of New York's Tammany Hall at the turn of the century saw nothing wrong wi…
Frederick Law Olmstead
In the early 1850s, New York had established a park commission and hired this individual as superintendent to plan Central Park. __________ later planned parks and even subdivisions in San Francisco, Brooklyn, Chicago, and other cities.
White City
A planning session of the new city that had to be constructed for the Chicago's World Fair was called "the greatest meeting of artists since the fifteenth century." The success of this "__________" sti…
Henry George
This individual wrote Progress and Property in 1879. He contended that poverty existed in the midst of progress because individuals owned more land than they could use and gained unearned wealth (capital gains) when…
Henry Demarest Lloyd
This individual wrote Wealth Against Commonwealth in 1894. He targets industrial monopoly as manifested by Rockefeller and Standard Oil. He concluded that those who ran industry were concerned only with wealth and not with promo…
Thorstein Veblen
This individual wrote The Theory of the Leisure Class in 1899. A trained economist, Veblen examined the pecuniary values of the middle classes and introduced phrases that since have become almost clichés: "conspicuous consumption"…
Edward Bellamy
This individual wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887 (1888). His work typified another genre of reform literature—the utopian novel. Bellamy portrayed a society transformed by democratic methods into a perfect world of economic and political equality u…
Young Men's Christian Association
Many Protestant churches responded to the growing secularization of the time by undertaking worldly function as well as saving souls. Most of these efforts were devoted to community service and care for the unfortunate. Exam…
Salvation Hospital
Many Protestant churches responded to the growing secularization of the time by undertaking worldly function as well as saving souls. Most of these efforts were devoted to community service and care for the unfortunate. Exam…
institutional church movement
As this movement expanded, church buildings acquired gymnasiums, libraries, and lecture rooms. By 1894, enough churches were involved in the movement that they coalesced into the "Open and Institutional Church League:" Some religious leaders b…
Washington Gladden
From Ohio, this individual became of the first to actively preach the social gospel. He accepted evolution and "textual criticism" of the Bible—the belief that the Bible is not always to be taken literally…
Walter Rauschenbusch
This Baptist theologian emerged as the clear leader of the social gospel movement. In Christianity and the Social Crisis (1907), he argued that the Kingdom of God lay not just in the world's churches,…
Pope Leo XIII
In 1891, __________'s Rerum Novarum reversed the Catholic Church's precious denunciation of progress, liberalism, rationalism, and socialism as enunciated by Pope Pius IX in his Syllabus of Errors, 1864. The Rerum Novarum m…
Samuel Coit
An American visitor who witnessed the good work being done at Toynbee Hall, and, upon returning to the United States, he established the Neighborhood Guild on New York's Lower East Side in 1886. By 1…
Jane Addams/Ellen Starr/Jean Fine/Lillian Wald
The best known of the, perhaps, 100 settlement houses that had been established in the United States where founded by these individuals: __________' and __________'s Hull House in Chicago (1889), __________. __________…
Susan B. Anthony
(1820-1906) An early leader of the women's suffrage (right to vote) movement, co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Elizabeth Cady Stnaton in 1869.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Along with Susan B. Anthony, this individual founded the National Woman Suffrage Association to promote a women's suffrage amendment to the Constitution, but they looked upon suffrage as but one among many feminist causes to be promoted.
National Woman Suffrage Association
Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton founded this organization to promote a women's suffrage amendment to the Constitution, but they looked upon suffrage as but one among many feminist causes to be promoted.
American Woman Suffrage Association
Founded by Lucy Stone and Julia Ward Howe and other leaders, this organization focused single-minded on the suffrage as the first basic reform.
National American Woman Suffrage Association
In 1890, after three years of negotiating, the rival groups reunited as this. Elizabeth Cady Stanton served as this body's president for two yeas, to be followed by Susan B. Anthony until 1900.
Anna Howard Shaw
After 1900, the work of the women's movement shifted to a new generation, led by this individual and Carrie Chapman Catt.
Carrie Chapman Catt
After 1900, the work of the women's movement shifted to a new generation, led by Anna Howard Shaw and this individual.
William T. Harris
This superintendent of St. Louis schools, philosopher, and proponent of graded schools and professional administration, declared that "The spirit of American institutions is to be looked for in the public schools to a greater de…
national commissioner of education
In 1867, the federal government created this job. His/her office compiled statistics which demonstrated the growing importance of public education.
Hampton Institute
Missionary school for blacks--like this one in Virginia--paid particular attention to vocational education. Hint: Booker T. Washington WAS TRAINED here.
Tuskegee Institute
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
Professor Calvin M. Woodward
From St. Louis, this individual, emerged as an effective leader in the vocational education movement. He convinced many high schools to install workshops for training in carpentry, printing, drafting, bricklaying, machine work, and home management.
Smith-Hughes Act of 1917
This legislation provided matching federal funds for vocational programs.
Second Morill Land Grant Act of 1890
The First __________ of 1862 had provided 30,000 acres of public land per representative and senator to fund the teaching of agricultural and mechanical arts at "land grant colleges." The __________…
Farmer's Institutes
Land grant colleges responded to Second Morill Land Grant Act of 1890 by establishing these which stressed the demonstration technique perfected by Seaman Knapp.
William Dean Howells
This writer emerged as the chief spokesman for the realist movement. As editor of Harper's Monthly, he demanded a literature that "wishes to known and to tell the truth" and that sought "to picture...daily …
Henry James
This writer also represented the realist school in his desire to achieve "an air of reality" in his novels. Where Howells had focused on the middle class, __________ concentrate don the American leisured class…
Stephen Crane
This naturalist author wrote Maggie: A Girl of the Streets (1893) which explored the degradation and ultimate destruction of a slum girl. He also wrote The Red Badge of Courage.
Frank Norris
This naturalist author wrote McTeague (1899) which portrayed a man "more animal than man," who is destroyed by his inability to escape either his instincts or his environment. He pursued similar themes in The Oct…
Theodore Dreirser
This individual is considered the most subtle of the naturalist writers. He produced a series of novels in which characters are "hostages to an urban world they neither understand nor control." His significant works inc…
Bret Harte
Regionalist author and editor of the Overland Monthly which produced tales of the California mining camps. His stories include "The Outcasts of Poker Flats" and "The Luck of the Roaring Camp."
Hamlin Garland
This regionalist author focused on the lives of farmers and farm families in the upper Midwest. His works include Main Traveled Roads.
Sarah Orne Jewett
This regionalist author depicted the down-eatsers of Maine in The Country of Pointed Firs.
George Washington Cable
This southern regionalist authored Old Creole Days.
Joel Chandler Harris
This southern regionalist authored Uncle Remus: His Songs and Sayings.
Mark Twain
real name - Samuel Clemens, and was an author whose books have become classics, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.